Autor: Nicolas • June 5, 2012 • Research Paper • 2,453 Words (10 Pages) • 709 Views
Developing Nations and Climate Change
Climate change is "a long term change in statistical distribution of weather patterns over a period of time" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change. A Developing Nation is seen by the Global Environment as a country which demonstrates a "low level of material well-being." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Developing_country. This following paper will consider the effectiveness of developing nations in dealing with climate change, through the examination of the following; Adaptation and Mitigation - how the world will respond and develop new strategies to combat climate change, Developing Nations such as India and China, Effective and Non Effective programmes, protocols and conferences. "Developing Countries, and the poorest people who live in them, are the most vulnerable to climate change. Yet it is also they who are most in need of expanded energy services to meet their growth and development needs" - Mark Malloch Brown http://www.undp.org/energy/climate.htm Developing Nations are widely disadvantaged when dealing with issues of climate change. Over many years research has shown that developing nations do not contribute as much emissions as the developed countries which are seen "historically responsible" for the amount emissions they have produced. Indian Prime Minister Manmohan stated that "It is the developing countries that are worst affected by climate change" http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aqr.54wsxvmI. This leaves these developing nations affected by global warming which will "increase the frequency and intensity of heat waves, drought and floods".http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090820082101.htm. Through this report it will be showed how developing nations are in some ways trying to combat the effects of climate change but are still in-effective with their strategies in protecting the environment.
ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION
Adaptation and Mitigation in both Developed and Developing countries play a major role when dealing with climate change. Adaptation in reference to climate change refers to the "adjustment in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli and their effects or impacts, addressed to the solution of relative problems, as well as to the benefits from the undertaken measures." http://enrin.grida.no/htmls/tadjik/vitalgraphics/eng/html/text_m5.htm. Adaptation is an effective strategy which will help prevent the consequences of climate change in both developed and developing nations. An example of an adaptive change can be seen by 'urban biofarming'. This can be used if climate change begins to have a major impact on the agriculture of nations. This is a highly effective technique where high tech tools such as photo-bioreactors create products that are useful all day. There are many positives to this such as the products are in use regardless of external climatic factors as well as it will not affect the existing biodiversity. http://www.scidev.net/en/climate-change-and-energy/adaptation/opinions/farming-in-cities-could-help-feed-the-world-1.html. Such an effective technique is limited in it's availability to many of the developing countries of the world. How can all developing countries access urban biofarming without the means and resources to do so?
Mitigation refers to the concept by which groups of nations work together to put in place a number of strategies and programmes that will help sustainable development. http://www.ausaid.gov.au/keyaid/mitigation.cfm. Mitigation uses effective strategies that organisations have put together to overcome a problem and achieve a common goal not just for developing nations but for more so the world. An example of mitigation can be seen in the 'Reducing emissions from forest degradation'. This is where large amounts of biomass have depleted within forests, which has seen as a significant impact to global emissions as it holds 30% of all forests emissions. Biodiversity is also affected by degradation as it acts a precursor for deforestation. http://www.scidev.net/en/climate-change-and-energy/mitigation/policy-briefs/reducing-emissions-from-forest-degradation.html. Mitigation is effective, as mitigation has:
* "Reduced impact logging - Which can reduce the carbon emissions per unit of wood by 30-50%
* Fire Management - This will reduce emissions by maintaining natural fire regimes and preventing fires in the lower forest.
* Improving forest governance."
Thus, such strategies can help reduce biomass within forest which will cause less emissions being produced. These Strategies are effective because they there is evidence that this is happening at this present time. http://www.scidev.net/en/climate-change-and-energy/mitigation/policy-briefs/reducing-emissions-from-forest-degradation.html
Developing nations are weak and fragile to climate change. The major cause of this is due to the nation's insufficient funds to acknowledge new technology, which could result in less carbon dioxide being produced. Developing Countries find it extremely difficult to respond to massive climate change affects due to their insufficient financial resources, given that their country relies heavily on natural resources and agriculture. http://www2.ucar.edu/news/898/climate-change-threat-developing-countries-lack-means-acquire-more-efficient-technologies. For these developing nations, climate change acts as a huge threat to their cultural lives. These developing nations have acknowledged the threat of climate change to their nation and have addressed and responded in a forward manner. In order for these nations to have a significant approach it needs help by the developed nations, this is by providing financial and technological supports which developing nations lack. This will be a major significance to "holding the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius as a long term global goal" http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/indepth/2011-03/03/c_13759383_2.htm.
Developing nations such as India, China and Mexico are widely affected by the change in the environment over the past couple of decades. India has already seen great impacts of Climate Change with unexpected "heat waves, cyclones, floods, effects on agriculture, fisheries and health". http://www.indiaclimateportal.org/how-climate-change-affects-india. Through studies it has shown by 2045