Autor: Kill009 • June 17, 2011 • 1,934 Words (8 Pages) • 3,035 Views
Concept Comparison and Analysis Theories Paper
Concept Comparison and Analysis Theories
Core concepts can be defined as the main components of any theory on which the theory can be formulated or a model can be designed. There are certain concepts which help in the development of nursing theories. There are theories and models developed by different theorists but all of them have same core concepts. The aim of this assignment is to identify a core concept that is common to two or more contemporary nursing theories. Further we have compared and analyzed the concept definitions among the selected theories. After that, we have chosen one theory and discussed where and how it may be best applied to nursing practice. The core concept selected for the purpose of this assignment is obesity while the nursing models selected are Orem's Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory and Pender's Health Promotion Model.
Obesity in adults is one of the most serious problems of United States. According to a research, nearly 127m Americans are indulged in this disease, i.e. they are overweight. Due to obesity problem, Americans face at least 300,000 deaths each year. (Wilson & Kershaw 2003) Additionally, the cost of healthcare associated with obesity is approximately $100b. (Williams 2001) Most of the nurses who are related to healthcare are facing serious problems due to increased number of patients of adult obesity. In this assignment, we have analyzed the problem of obesity from the perspective of Dorothea Orem and Nola Pender's models.
"The role of obesity in the etiology of diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease is well established. Obesity is also recognized as a major risk factor in the development of many other diseases, such as gastro esophageal reflux, arthritis of weight-bearing joints, sleep apnea, and certain types of cancer" (Wang 2001). Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nurses caring for obese patients should recognize the need to use specialized assessment and management strategies to prevent poor patient outcomes.
The issues related to adult obesity and their application to nursing practice can best be analyzed and described with the help of Pender's Health Promotion Model and Orem's Self Care Deficit Nursing Theory. The analysis with the involvement of these models can provide a better goal setting for professional nursing practices related to adult obesity.
The premise of Orem's theory lies on the basis of concepts related to goal setting in nursing practice. According to this theory, there is an ability in human beings to take some bold steps in order to regulate their health, life and well-being. (Tomey & Alligood 2002) According to Orem, the Self care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT) is based on a general theory and is comprised of three theories related to each other. These are; (a) self-care theory in which the researcher has described about the reasons for people to care about themselves, (b) theory of self care deficit in which it has been argued that there is a specific reason for people being helped through the profession of nursing and (c) nursing system theory which is based on the concept that there is a significant need to build some relationship in order to make nursing practice more efficient and effective. According to Orem, the need for relevant information about the patient is very necessary to determine whether there exists any self-care deficit or not. This information is very important for nurses to create a plan, interventions of nursing and in return producing a very efficient and effective nursing care. Orem did this through a comprehensive assessment test using SCDNT model. (Lannon 2007)
According to Pender's Health Promotion Model, there is an existence of multi-dimensional nature of interaction of persons with the environment in pursuing healthcare. This model is very popular and is divided into several segments which relate to promoting lifestyle. These segments are modifying factors, cognitive-perceptual factors and certain other variables which affect the possibility of any particular action. For maintenance and acquisition of health promoting lifestyle, cognitive-perceptual factors remain the significant participant in the mechanism of motivation for promotional lifestyle. (Hahler 2002) Some of the main components of these factors are perceived health control, health importance, perceived status of health, perceived level of efficacy, health definition and some perceived advantages and disadvantages to the behavior of health promotion. Some of the factors associated with modification of this health promotional model include biological, demographic, interpersonal, behavioral and situational factors. The researcher of this theory, Pender asserts that the focus of health promotion is directed towards a valenced state which is positive in nature and is related to superior well-being and healthcare.
The theory of Orem helps us to analyze the nursing practice application in a single voice which directs the efficient role of nursing in any healthcare setting related to adult obesity. The collection of important information regarding the patients with the help of vital concepts of Orems' theory will generally help the nursing care unit to define and identify the self-care deficit, if any. The existence of self-care deficit is an alarming situation and is known when a patient does not have an ability to care for himself. Several factors can be identified in the case of obese patient. (Goodwin & Peterson 2002) These factors are universal and can be regarded as requisites which are universal and are related to self-care. These are: food, activity and rest. On the other hand, there are some deviation determinants related to self-care, whose requisites are obesity and ambulating difficulty.
An obese patient should seek advice and knowledge from a certified healthcare professional as the patient would always like to be slim and lose weight. He/she would also like to be seen as more active from his friends and family. Obesity is a very serious issue and it is mandatory for the patient to go for weight loss as the condition of that patient