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Concept Comparison and Analysis Across Theories Paper

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Concepts are the basic elements and the building blocks of theory development (Fitzpatrick & Whall, 2005). Like a cell that grows and matures into an organism with nurturance, a concept evolve into theory from empirical, inferential, or abstract ideas that when validated through research becomes a body of knowledge, discipline, or science. Concepts are important in nursing because they are sources of theories and that set the nursing profession apart from other disciplines and become the instrument for nursing to be recognized as a science. The purposes of this paper are to compare and analyze the core concept definitions of the person, health, environment, and nursing of two nursing theorists Dorotea Orem and Hildegard Peplau, and discuss concept statement, metaparadigms, philosophies, and conceptual model of Callista Roy where and how her theory can be applied to nursing practice.

General Theory of Nursing and Interpersonal Relations Theory

Dorothea Orem's General Theory of Nursing was first published in 1971. Her theory is composed of three sub-theories: self-care, self-care deficit, and nursing systems and embody the following four concepts: person, environment, health, and nursing. Orem sees humans as biopsychosocial beings able to take care of themselves and willing to depend on others when certain conditions prevent them from doing so. Orem explains self-care behavior as a continuum performed by individuals to maintain health and achieve well-being. Self-care behavior is intended to meet known needs. These needs which she calls "self-requisites" are divided into three groups: universal, developmental, and health deviation. Universal requisite is common to all people. It includes physiologic, love and belonging, and safety needs. Everyone needs food, water, air, rest, interactions, and safety by preventing harm and maintaining well-being. Developmental requisites are factors that affect developmental life cycle.



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