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Bio-Utilization of Mango Seeds for Production of Poultry Seed; Economy Diversification Opportunity for Nigeria

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Bio-Utilization of mango seeds as replacement in poultry feed; A diversification opportunity for Nigeria.

1Haruna, A. Z., 2Orukotan, A. A., and 1Tor, L. G.

1Federal College of Forestry Mechanization, Afaka-Kaduna, Nigeria.

2Kaduna State University, Kaduna town. or



The study examined the potentials of mango seeds as cereal replacement in poultry feed. Empirical studies were carried out from microbiology, food chemistry and animal nutrition literatures for the purpose of this paper. The literatures revealed that feed constitute a major component of the production cost in the livestock sector especially in poultry production where 60-80% of the cost of operation is taken by feeds. Poultry farmers have often seek means of lowering their cost of feed hence exploring alternative ingredients other than grains. Mango seeds seen as waste products present viable substitutes for cereal used in poultry feed. The seeds which are readily available within Nigeria contain high amount of energy, crude fiber, vitamins and other trace minerals. Research further shows that 20% of maize could be replaced by these seeds alone in poultry feeds due to the high percentage of crude fiber in them. This could be achieved through bio-utilization of micro-organism using fermentation process to lower the anit-nutritional contents of the seeds making them safe. The end product of this being Carbohydrate, Moisture, Ash, Lipid, Fibre, Crude protein and Minerals such as; Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous. This shows mango seeds present economic opportunity for poultry industry and which could help diversify the fortunes of Nigeria. This study recommends that feed companies explore this opportunity towards lowering the cost of poultry feeds with the help of microbiologists to ensure the desired outcome is gotten.

Key Words: Bio-utilization, mango, replacement, poultry and diversification.


Feed represents the major cost of poultry production, constituting up to 70 percent of the total expenditure in a production cycle. Energy and protein sources constitute 95% of nutritional requirement in poultry feed composition with about 3 to 4 % being major mineral, trace mineral and vitamin requirements, and 1 to 2 % being various feed additives (FAO, 2012). Grains such as maize, oat, rice, wheat and sorghum are common sources of energy in poultry feed while soy beans and sesame are commonly used as protein sources. These two products are increasingly becoming too expensive and their inclusion in poultry feed has been the main reason for the high cost of feed both in commercial and compounded feeds. Increase price of cereal used in feed formulation for poultry production has led to production of low-nutritional quality feeds (Diarra, et al.,2011) while competition between man and livestock for grains posed a great concern making the need to seek for energy replacement in mango kernel.

According to Diarra (2014), Mango is a very common tropical fruit usually found in Southern Asia, especially in Eastern India, China, Burma, Andaman Islands, Central America and West Africa. It belongs to the genus Angifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant Anacardiaceae. It is cultivated and grown vastly in many tropical regions and widely distributed in the world but indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia (Fowomola, 2010). Cultivated in many tropical regions and distributed widely in the world. It is one of the most extensively exploited fruits for food, juice, flavor, fragrance and color and a common ingredient in new functional foods often called superfruits. Its leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings and religious ceremonies. Mango kernel (seed) according to Kittiphoom (2012) could replace huge portion of grains in poultry feed as it contains crude protein, oil, ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate.

Mango kernel incorporation into poultry feed can be made possible through bio-utilization process called “Fermentation”. This is one of the ancient methods of food processing and involves the use of beneficial micro organism and their enzymes to obtain desirable quality and character of food (Campbell-plat, 2004). The micro organism through a biochemical process with the aid of microbial enzymes and fermentation can enhance palatability, increase protein value, vitamins and mineral content of mango kernel (Apena, et al., 2006). This reduces the anti-nutritional compound in mango seeds while nutritional value is increased (Achi, 2005) in the presence of lactic acid. Lactic acid bacteria include lactobacillusbrevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillusfermentum which are mostly isolated from fruits, vegetables, and dairy products (Estefânia, et al. 2016).

This opportunity has remain only in research finding and not being put to commercial use which may be due to poor information about the possibility. This forms the basis for this paper to bring to light the opportunity available to help poultry farmers utilize products considered as waste within our environment and incorporate it into poultry feed thereby lowering their production cost and diversifying the economy.


This paper was achieved by reviewing several literatures from animal nutrition, biochemistry and general agricultural research publication and using selected secondary data presented in the various research findings.


Table 1: Proximate composition of unfermented and fermented mango seed kernel

Proximate Composition (%)

Unfermented Mango Seed Kernel

Fermented Mango Seed Kernel


83.50 +7.682

77.82 + 0.04


43.67 + 0.76

3.67 +0.883


3.83 + 0.29

1.33 + 3.21


12.17 + 0.29

2.67 + 9.657


1.33 + 0.29

0.67 + 0.836

Crude protein

4.61 + 0.43

7.06 + 0.217

Source: Ibrahim et al; 2017.

The table above shows that mango seed kernel have high amount of carbohydrate and crude protein. Also, Bio-availability of crude protein can further be achieved by fermentation using lactobacillus fermentum metabolism involving pyravate which could be metabolized to various compounds during fermentation (Mohammed, 2016). This finding conforms to Apena (2015) who reported that protein levels could be increased in grains using fermentation process hence making fermented mango kernel excellent choice for energy replacement in poultry diet. Furthermore, other researchers also suggest that fermentation process also decrease Trypsin Inhibitory Activity (TIA), Amyase inhibitors activity phytic acid and tanning (Mohammed et al., 2013).  Most probiotic bacteria are Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) of which lactobacillus is the most common genera. Lactobacillus also serves as Probiotics supplementation in improving the growth, nutrient utilization and survivability of broiler chickens (Chen et al., 2015). Probiotics can stimulate mucosal innate and adaptive immune response against parasites and gastrointestinal pathogens. This is in agreement with Yurong et al., (2005) where the supplement of bacillus –based probiotic increased intestinal mucosal immunity against Almeria parasites in broilers and work of Saffar and Khajali (2010) where probiotic supplementation  prevent mortality in broilers caused by ascites. This implies that mango kernel inclusion in poultry diet will also have medicinal effects on parasites and boast immune system of the birds.



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