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Black Death

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Chapter 14.

Black death-a plague that made its way across Europe and around the world through rats, and is thought to be a combination of anthrax and bubonic plague. Killed off over 60 percent of Europe's population.

Hanseatic league-Association of trading cities that traded extensively in the Baltic, including newly conquered german territories of the Prussian coast. Ranged eastward to Novogrod, and west to London by route of the North Sea

Gothic cathedrals-Architectural vwonders of Europe in 1140, mostly French.consisted of a gothic arch, Flying buttresses, and this method of construction allowed builders to push these cathedrals to great heights and immense beauty.this was done with no complex understanding of mathematical principles

Scholasticism-efforts to synthesize reason, examples; summa theological issued between 1267 and 1273 by Thomas Aquinas. This way of thinking upset the balance of religion and science in many ways.

Great western schism-a period when rival claimants at Avignon and Rome vied for the loyalties of Latin Christians . conflict eventually resolved by returning papa residence to traditional location, rome. Papacy regained independence but crisis broke popes ability to challenge rrising power of larger monarchies,

Hundred Years War-long conflict between the king and his vassals . of france. Key example of the transformation between politics and warfare. Monarchy set against ambitions of his vassals, Edward II married Isabella of france to ensure that all power stayed pure to French monarchy.none of her brothers produced a male heir,so Isabella's son Edward III claimed throne in 1337.but the French courts awarded the throne to a more distant cousin of his, and he decided to fight for it. This led to much military advancement such as the English longbow, heavier armor, pikes, and firearms.

New monarchies- French and englosh monrchies resulted from their medieval predecessors. Greater centralization of power, more fixed national boundaries, and stronger representative institutions. Taxes on merchants, nobles were required to pay payments towards their standing armies, and the church was another way to pay for such military advancements.

Zheng He-Chinese Muslim head of the Ming expeditions to the Persian gulf. Was a fitting emissary to the Muslim dominated Indian ocean basin.

Gold coast-a strech of coast in western Africa purchased from the portugese crown in 1469 by fernao Gomes, a Lisbon merchant . This became the center and headquarters for portugals west African trade.

Treaty of Tordesillas- treaty issued by spain and Portugal that was an effort to prevent disputes over who could spread hristianity in the newly discovered American lands. This treaty drew an imaginary line down the north atlantic ocean.

Christian Ethiopia- country in western Africa that allied with Portugal. This

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