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Educational System Development

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Волос Екатерины МКК-3

The text deals with public educational systems expansion and the role which education plays in the life of society. The text could be logically divided into two parts. The first one concentrates on explanations of considerable extension of educational systems around the world. In the second one the author contemplates the connection between education and personal growth.

Firstly, sociologists name two possible reasons for schooling system development. According to them, this phenomenon is caused either by consensus or by conflict in the process of social transformation. The first perspective is represented by Emile Durkheim. He claims that social unity, which has been achieved in industrialized European countries, involves creating an institution that could convey moral and civil values to general public. In his opinion, public schooling could successfully meet this requirement. The opposite point of view is reflected in Karl Marx’s works, who considered public schooling as means of ideological control. He stated that such system was used for creating organized labour power and distributing valued resources.

Secondly, the process of educational system development includes not only national scale aspect, but also an individualistic one. It is illustrated in progressive educational theories formulated by John Dewey which implied total development of a child achieved by considering students’ needs and critical thought stimulation.

To sum up, I could say that social theories of 19th and early 20th centuries saw the aim of educational system mostly in creating a well-established mechanism for society functioning maintenance. However, since the end of the 20th century there has been a tendency of individual potential cultivation. Nowadays much more attention is paid to children’s personal needs and interests. To my mind, this approach is the best way to create a civil society consisting of people who know their rights as well as responsibilities.

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