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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

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Name of Theory: Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Author of the Theory: Victor Vroom

Year Created/ Published: 1964, and a extension of this theory was created by Porter and Lawler in 1968

Purpose of the theory/ model: Expectancy theory predicts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that putting in more effort will yield better job performance, better job performance will lead to organizational rewards, such as an increase in salary or benefits and that these predicted organizational rewards are valued by the employee in question.

How does the theory/ model work? An individual's opinion is formed by a combination of three factors which Vroom categorized

1. Expectancy - Does the individual believe that they can achieve the task

2. Valence - Does the individual believe that completing the task will benefit them or cause detriment.

3. Instrumentality - What is the probability of completing the task leading to an outcome desired by the individual

Managers will have to find out the rewards the persons under them want. They have to create a link between the business outputs and the personal rewards the employees strongly desires. Then they have to ensure that the employee has the basic capabilities to perform the tasks required to achieve the business outcomes or goals. They have to act as coaches to develop the employee.

Overview/ Main Points of the theory/ Model: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation provides an explanation as to why an individual chooses to act out a specific behavior as opposed to another. This cognitive process evaluates the motivational force of the different behavioral options based on the individual's own perception of the probability of attaining his desired outcome. Vroom suggests that "for a person to be motivated, effort, performance and motivation must be linked.

What you find interesting about the theory/ model

That Vroom believed by presenting employees incentives and rewards upfront before doing there job, would motivate them to perform their job better



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