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Key Terms of Chapters 19 - 24: Ethel Wood's Essential Ap Coursebook

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Key Terms: Chapters 19 - 24


Terms and Concepts

- Investiture: controversy over the appointment of church officials in the late 11th and 12th centuries.

a. 1073 - 1085, Pope Gregory VII ended lay investiture, where rulers could appoint church officials.

b. 1056 - 1106, Emperor Henry IV challenged policy, was excommunicated.

c. Result: German prince's independence, emperor's diminished authority.

d. Frederick Barbarossa tried to conquer Lombardy, in n Italy, but pope interfered and showed superiority once again.

- Excommunication: no longer recognizing a person or group of people as part of an organized religion.

a. Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholicism.

- Hanseatic League (Hansa):

- Chivalry

- Waldensians: despised Roman Catholic clergy - corrupt and immoral - advocating modest and simple lives. Asserted right of laity to preach and administer sacraments, criticized Bible.

a. Some still survive today!

- Cathars: group who rejected Roman Catholic teachings and adopted heretical views of a world in a good v evil scenario. Those who wanted perfect life went ascetic, revoked marriage and meat.

a. Pope Innocent III destroyed them through military campaign; gone by 15th century.

- Franciscans & Dominican: orders of mendicants, with no personal possessions and begged for food to those who they preached to. Active in urban areas, combating heretical beliefs.

- Guilds

- Cathedral Schools

- Universities


- William of Normandy: In 1066, Duke William of Normandy conquered England from descendants of Angles, Saxons, and other Germanic peoples; became William the Conqueror. Ruled over England with a Norman-style feudal system, much stricter than that of Capetian France.

- Crusades:

a. Peter the Hermit: traveled in Europe and organized a ragtag army for Crusades . Set out for Palestine with no training, supplies, or weapons.

b. Pope Urban II: called Christian knights to take up arms and seize the holy land, 1095.

c. Saladin: reorganized the Turks and took back Jerusalem from the Crusaders in the 12th century.

d. First Crusade: successfully captured Jerusalem for about a century

e. Fourth Crusade: captured Constantinople

- Robert Guiscard & Roger Guiscard: led the Reconquest of Sicily from the Muslims.

- Eric the Red: founded first Nordic Settlement in England

- Leif Ericsson: traveled to modern Newfoundland, called Vinland; there they found plentiful resources. Colony founded in Newfoundland and lasted, but they died or left.

- St. Thomas Aquinas: harmonized Aristotle and reason with Christianity.


- Tenochtitlan: island in the middle of a lake, Natural defense with lake.

- Chinampa: where cultivators tapped water from canals into their crops, like floating islands of crops.

- Tula: capital of Tenochtitlan; important city in trade goods. Close relations with other empires. Problems with civil and ethnic strife inside the city tore it down in 1175

- Marae: (religious structure) Mahaiatea on Tahiti was a huge step pyramid for religious rituals.

Terms and Concepts

- Nan Madol:

- Aztlan

- Quetzalcoatl: feathered serpent god.

- Huitzilopochtli: patron deity of Mexica warriors.

- Tezcatlipoca: other main god of Aztecs.

- Iroquois Peoples: an agricultural society in the eastern woodlands

a. Five Iroquois nations emerged from Owasco society, 1400 C.E: Mohawk, Oneida, Onongada, Cayuga, Seneca

- Chucuito: dominated Andean South America after the twelfth century

a. Cultivation of potatoes; herding of llamas and alpacas were main influx of money. They traded with lower valleys because they needed the goods most; chewed coca leaves for stamina in thin air of Andes

- Chimu: powerful kingdom in the lowlands of Peru before the mid-fifteenth century

- Inti: sun god of Inca

- Virachoca: creator god of Inca

- Quipu: mnemonic aide, for record keeping (Incas)

- Ali'I'nui: high chiefs of Hawaii

- Kapu: Pacific Islander "haram;" taboo


- Itzcoatl: "Obsidian Serpent," (Itzcoatl) conquered Oaxaca first, then turned to Gulf coast

- Motecuzoma I

- Bernal Diaz del Castillo

- La'amaikahiki

- Mo'ikeha

- Motecuzoma II

- Pachacuti: launched campaigns against neighbors, 1438. Succumbed to Inca power when they controlled all of their irrigation supply.


- Melaka: trading city; orderly, strategically located, with reasonable custom fees. Population boomed in Melaka after just a few years in control of the straight.

- Prince Henrique

Terms and Concepts

- Ilkhanate of Persia

- Nestorian Christianity

- Sharia

- Qadi: judge

- Bubonic Plague

- Yongle Encyclopedia

- Hundred Year's



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