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Nonphotosynthetic Prokaryotic

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5. Describe the structure of a eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell.

Eukaryotic cells are found in both plant and animals. They are large and consist of many organelles. Some eukaryotic cells which are found in plants go through the process of photosynthesis in order to gain energy. Non photosynthetic cells obviously cannot gain energy through this process. Prokaryotic cells are less complex and much smaller in comparison to eukaryotic cells, as they are bacterial cells. The structures of general eukaryotic and non-photosynthetic prokaryotic cells are diverse. Most importantly, all eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus which store's the genetic or hereditary information of that cell. Many processes occur within such cells, one being cellular respiration. The main organelle in charge of cellular respiration is the mitochondria, which gains energy to develop the respiration with use of ATP. In plant cell's, ATP is developed through the process of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts are a main component of this process. They convert the energy from sunlight into chemical energy which is stored in molecules like glucose. These glucose molecules are then converted into pyruvate, through a process called glycolysis, in order to release free energy called ATP; the kreb's cycle, also known as the second process of the mitochondria's cellular respiration, is another way of releasing free energy. This is all part of the photosynthetic process of eukaryotic cells.

Eukaryotic cells consist of many more organelles located in the cytoplasm of the cell, one of them being, the endoplasmic reticulum. The rough E.R. is a structure which creates ribosome's, and helps with the processes of endocrine and exocytosis. As vesicles form and molecules enter the cell, they are pinched off into little vesicles (endocytosis). These vesicles travel through the endoplasmic reticulum and then through the Golgi apparatus, until they reach the plasma membrane, and pinch out (exocytose). The plasma membrane controls what enters and exits the cell through a process called diffusion. In addition to cell protection and shape, the cytoskeleton is in charge of this. These are the many components of eukaryotic cells. Non photosynthetic means that the cell does not make large and complex materials (using sunlight as energy). Essentially, non-photosynthetic prokaryotic cells do not use sunlight energy, nor is there a process in which large materials such as glucose are formed. Instead there are two types of prokaryotic cells and how they obtain energy. Autotrophs create their own organic food, and heterotrophs consume food that they find in their surroundings. Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria to make the process faster.

Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus, but rather store their information in the plasmids themselves, nor do



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