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The Bioecolgocial Systems Perspective Developed by Uri Bronfenderbrenner

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The bioecolgocial systems perspective, developed by Uri Bronfenderbrenner, explained the importance of relationships as well as environment in human and family development (Garbarino & Abramowitz, 1992). The bioecological perspective includes the four systems, microssystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem (Garbarino & Abramowitz, 1992). Within this prospective it is important to explore the protective and risk factors that often shape the resilience of a family system or individual in their ability to cope with life transitions (Reynolds, 2005). In the case study about Rasuel and her family, I will use the four systems of the bioecological perspectives to examine the affects of the families' immigration to the United States on Rasuel's development. I will also explore how Rasuel handled hardships, and demonstrated resilience individually as well as in her family system.

Garbino & Abramowitz (1992), explained microsystems as the relationships and environments that have the most immediate impact on one's day-to-day development. For Rasuel she described her interaction with her uncles, aunts, and cousins as positive, which provided a protective factor in her ability to cope with the transition from the refugee camp to the United States (Hutchinson, 2008). An example of this protective factor is her uncle's willingness to allow the family to live with him until her father was able to get a job to support the family. A potential risk factor for Rasuel and her parents was being unfamiliar with the English language and moving to a new culture. The stress felt by her father in having to learn English and provide for the family could have brought a sense of instability to the family system, increasing Rasuel's anxiety towards the families' immigration.

Mesosystems are the connections between the microsystems, such as school, home, and, the community, which are important to a child's development (Garbarino & Abromowitz, 1992). The bioecological systems perspective stresses the importance of a child's ability to cohesively interact with different microsystems to increase positive connections between home and outside environments (Eman, 2001). A potential risk factor for Rasuel was the culture she had once lived in, was much different then the culture of the she was currently living in. Rasuel was now in a culture where she was unable to speak the language, which could have caused her to feel isolated from her community and peers. A protective factor for Rasuel was that her school paired her up with another student to help her adjust to the transition, as well as the three years of English as a second language classes available to her (Hutchinson, 2008). Rasuel's father also took classes at a community college at night to learn English so that he could help Rasuel in school (Hutchinson, 2008). Without the interaction between the microsystems of home and school providing Rasuel the support needed during her transition she could have been at risk for feeling isolated from her peers, family, and community.

The exocsystem prospective explains the idea of how children's development can be affected by events that the child has no power to control (Gabino & Abramowitz, 1992). A potential risk factor for Rasuel was the fear and stress associated with the families fleeing Baghdad for the refugee camp due to the war, and her father's refusal to serve in the army (Hutchinson, 2008). Rasuel described the time she spent in the refugee camp as confusing and frightening (Hutchinson, 2008). A potential protective factor for Rasuel



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