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Weimer Republic and Hitler Reise

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With the preparation of this work we intend to show how the evolution in Germany between 1919 and 1933 was.

Weimar Republic, name of the political regime and, by extension, the historical period that took place in Germany since the meeting of the National Constituent Assembly in 1919 to repeal the Constitution and the subsequent assumption of power made by the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party, Adolf Hitler, in 1933.

We can divide this period in three parts:

1919 - 1923: Instability of the Weimer Republic

1924 - 1929: Consolidation

1929 - 1933: Agony and raise of National Socialism (Nazism)

1. Establishment of the Weimer Republic

The Republic was proclaimed on the 9th November 1918 (for this reason we could consider that the Weimar Republic began its existence in that year), after the workers and troops of the German Empire rise up in rebellion against the government at the beginning of 1918 because it refused to hold a conversation that would end First World War. Emperor Wilhelm II escape outside the country and finally he had to abdicate, then a Provisional Government of the Council of People's Commissars was formed, composed of a coalition of members of the German Social Democratic Party, led by Friedrich Ebert, Independent German Social Democratic Party.

2. Instability of the Weimer Republic

2.1 Treaty of Versailles

The constituent elections took place in January 1919 and in February coalition government headed by Social Democrat Scheidemann took possession. The first problem he faced was extremely rough: the signing of the peace treaty of Versailles, one of the most important and controversial arrangements, which required Germany and its allies to accept the full responsibility for causing the war, forcing the disarm, make substantial concessions of territory and pay reparations to the victors, these conditions was considered intolerable and humiliating for the vast majority of Germans, starting with Scheidemann, who refused to sign and resigned in June 1919. It was necessary, therefore, form a new government, also headed by a Social Democrat Gustav Adolf Bauer, who took over responsibility for the firm. It was a contradictory and difficult decision, but I knew that the alternative could be the disintegration of a state which, after all, has not reached yet half century of life (Mary Fulbrook, 2004, A Concise History of Germany).

2.2 The Weimer Constitution

The Constitution of 181 articles was adopted on July 31, 1919. Overflowing on all four sides the spirit of concord and mutual understanding, and at the same time uncertainly and ambiguous. In Weimar was not established a new state, simply it was given to the Deutsche Reich (even retained that name) a new form, the Republican. The people experienced the disappointment of the imposition of a constitution in which they did not participate. It was the idea that, ultimately, the Republic had supplanted the Empire without its governance principles differ therein. Nevertheless, the Weimar Republic was a democratic period. At the head of the federal state and parliamentary, was placed a president directly elected for a term of seven years, endowed with strong authority and the right to dissolve Parliament, which remembers the ancient powers of the emperor and the limitations of parliamentary Bismarck. Parliament was constituted by an elective house, the Reichstag, and the Reichsrat. The chancellor, appointed by the president, assumed executive power. The new Constitution enshrined the proportional vote (which would not facilitate the emergence of clear majorities and help to give instability to the system) and the emergency powers available to the president. However, beyond the contingent situation, the Weimar Constitution was the first that included the principles that form the basis of the welfare state.

2.3 Coup against the Republic

The Weimar constitution successfully passed its first severe test. When, in March 1920, some units mutinied and installed a government in Berlin led by General Von Luttwitz and Wolfgang Kapp, they promoted the monarchist putsch failed because of the general strike proclaimed by labor unions and the lack of collaboration of officials, who remained loyal to the state, although it was a republic. But the putsch left political consequences: for example in Bavaria, where the socialist government that happened after Soviet republic, was overthrown and replaced by a government "of order."

The Kapp putsch turned against the coalition of Weimar, which soon called new elections. The National Assembly, which was still in session, was dissolved and the first Reichstag was elected on June 6, 1920. These elections were a big failure for the coalition of Weimar, the victory of the right was a great instability for the country's security, where started to act different terrorist organizations.

2.4 The terrible year: 1929

This is the year where the Republic suffered the biggest crisis ever and that forced the Government to take a series of measures to solve problems and achieve stability. The two main problems on that year were:

a) The Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr and passive resistance

The basis of this conflict was the economic crisis and, more specifically, the inflation, which was considered as a result of the payment of many gold marks in reparations. On December 1922 the reparation commission checked German delays in the delivery of coal and other commitments. France and Belgium found the pretext to invade the Ruhr, despite the American and British opposition.

b) The economic meltdown: hyperinflation

In March the economy suffers the most definitive collapse. The loss of value of money, coupled with the sharp decline of production and increase of unemployment rate situated Germany on the most unimaginable real and psychological abyss: loss of purchasing power and possibility of trade besides the end of trust in institutions. But the stop in the fall came in the month of November.

Image 1.Symbol of hyperinflation de 1923,

However, in certain circles inflation was beneficial: Large companies could forget their debts, which reach rapidly to zero. Also some industry managed to increase his fortune very quickly under cover



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