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Explore the History and Influential People in the Field of Psychology

Autor:   •  November 4, 2011  •  Essay  •  634 Words (3 Pages)  •  3,401 Views

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1. List the historical perspectives in psychology and briefly describe (1-2 sentences) each perspective, including any theorist mentioned in the textbook who is associated with the perspective.

The formal beginning of psychology as a scientific discipline is generally considered to be in the 19th century when , in Leipzig, Germany Wilhelm Wundt establish the first experimental laboratory devoted to psychological phenomena, at the same time William James was setting Explore the history and influential people in the field of psychology

up his laboratory in Cambridge , Massachusetts. Wundt's aim was to study the building blocks of the mind. This prospective, became known as Structuralism Feldman 2011 (Chapter 1, p. 15).

Structuralism focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of perception, consciousness, thinking, emotions, and other kinds of mental states and activities

Wundt's and other structuralists used a procedure called introspection which they presented people with stimulus, such as a picture or a printed word and analyze their replies or reaction Feldman 2011 (Chapter 1, p. 15).

Functionalism, a prospective that replaced structuralism concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions, it became prominent in the early 1900s and asked what role behavior played in helping people adapt to their environment. It was led by American psychologist William James; it studies how people react to ones emotions, such as fear Feldman 2011 (Chapter 1, p. 16).

Gestalt psychology was another reaction to structuralism, instead of considering the individual parts that make up thinking, Gestalt psychologist study how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes, led by German scientist such as Hermann Ebbinghaus and Max Wertheimer, they purpose that the whole is different from the sum of its parts Feldman 2011 (Chapter 1, p. 17).

2. List the five current perspectives of psychology (1-2 sentences) and briefly describe each perspective, including any theorist mentioned in the textbook who is associated with the perspective

A.Neuroscience Perspective: Views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning, how the inheritance of certain characteristics from parents and other ancestors influence behaviors Feldman 2011 (Chapter 1, p. 19).

b. Psychodynamic Perspective: psychodynamic perspective argues that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have awareness or control. The origins of psychodynamic view are linked to one person Sigmund Freud. Feldman 2011 (Chapter 1, p. 19)

c. Behavioral Perspective: Behaviorists suggest that the field of psychology should focus on observed behavior that can be measured objectively. John B. Watson who published behaviorism in 1924 be lived that it was possible to elicit any desired type of behavior by controlling a person's environment Feldman 2011 (Chapter


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