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African American's Fight to End Segregation, Discrimination and Isolation to Attain Equality and Civil Rights

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During the early 1800's, African Americans have gone through a series of adversities. They've worked very hard to end slavery, segregation isolation and discrimination for good. Segregation is the practice of keeping ethnic, racial, religious, or gender groups separate, especially by enforcing the use of separate schools, transportation, housing, and other facilities, and usually discriminating against a minority group. Isolation is the process of separating somebody or something from others, or the fact of being alone and separated from others. African Americans joined as one in their struggle for freedom, equal rights, segregation and discrimination by forming their own institutions for education, churches and fraternal orders, and finally the Civil Rights Movement.

In the 19th century African Americans struggled with the civil rights movements, the Ku Klux Klan, and racial inequality. This was a struggle that had to be fought, blacks in America did not just face poverty, but a degrading, racist social system commonly known as Jim Crow (racial segregation). Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, things did not change for black. "The Emancipation postponed many of the slave's freedom due to the Jim Crow Law" ( Abolishment of slavery, racism and segregation would take longer for some. However, They choose to gain literacy, build black churches and remain working for the white land owners. With this method and the establishments of black churches being controlled by slaves that were free, blacks were trained to be teachers and also be able to negotiate with white land owners. African Americans were plagued by a lot of violence and intimidation so they decided to protest against segregation and isolation when W.E.B. DuBois, the first African American with a PhD assisted the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) with racial issues.

There were state and local laws in the United States enacted from 1876 to 1968; which mandated racial segregation in public facilities with a supposedly separate and equal status for African Americans. These laws directly undermined the status of blacks placing unfair restrictions on everything; with voting rights to segregation of water fountains. Blacks also had to struggle with their right to use the same restrooms, eat at the same establishments or attend the same schools as white people (Bowles, M. (2011).

In the South rights to vote, organize, even to assemble were taken away from blacks. Although schools were segregated, blacks still had many other issues to deal with, such as public transportation, not being able to sit in the front of the bus; not being able to use public toilets or to eat in public places where whites were predominant.

Frederick Douglas and President Andrew Johnson met at the White House in February, 1866, to discuss the suffrage issues. Of course this meeting was not successful. African Americans also had to deal with the Democratic Party's northern wing even denouncing racial equality. Terrorists groups such as the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) arose to commit and torment violence against both African Americans and strong Republicans. The violence included racism and was as horrible as groups like the KKK operated solely in the South, and discrimination of a lesser sort also known in the northern cities. The North welcomed Emancipation, but at the expense of Black people. One would think that the Emancipation act was a time for celebration for African Americans, but instead it was the beginning of a horrible era of terrorism as white people still had the same ill mentality against African Americans.

During the mid-1950's through the late 1960's blacks started to respond to unfair treatment shown by the white Americans, they responded to the segregation of blacks and whites during that time and double standards the African Americans were held by. Blacks responded by joining in boycotts, marches and sit-ins, as they tried to get as many legislations to pass so they become equal. They were very successful in most of their actions which brought more rights for them.

The tremendous Civil Rights movement of the 1950s, 60s and early 70s shook America to its very foundations. It was a movement that in one way or another touched every black family in the US. Internationally throughout Africa, the Caribbean and even Europe as blacks were imbued with a new confidence. Then there was great hope from impassioned speeches of leaders like Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, as blacks formed their own institutions where African Americans were able to go to school and become educated so they can be marketable for better jobs. During WWII, over 3 million blacks registered for the Army, over 500,000 fought and many died "To defend democracy" in racially segregated units.

The Buffalo Soldiers also explored and made their mark in large areas of the southwest and thousands of miles of telegraph lines. Without the protection of the 9th and 10th Cavalries, crews of the buffalo soldiers built the expanding railroads at the mercy hostile Indians and outlaws. Despite extreme prejudices and the worst assignments, the buffalo soldiers did their duties to the best of their abilities. Theodore Roosevelt extended great praise of the African American soldiers at their widespread heroism displayed during their roles in the war; and awarded six of them with the Congressional Medal of Honor. While there were many significant and successful events in between, the 1950's were a movement in civil rights that holds significant substance in African American history, there were often struggles through the courts by blacks to end segregation. There were little effects before 1954 when the Supreme Court ruled that



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