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History and Theory Paper

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The world that we are stewards over is ever evolving, that includes, of course,

psychology. Over many years and during the tenure of many notable psychologists and

psychiatrists, theories that were considered new and promising yet unproven formed the

foundation for new theory exploration and discovery. Names like Carl Rogers and Sigmund

Freud built theories that are often applied in the field today and are useful, doubtful if they will

ever outlive their usefulness. This proves that Rogers and Freud had valid and useful insights

into the mind. Freud is well known for his work and development on the psychological

paradigm, also known as the theory of psychoanalysis (Stea, 2012). Roger's theory, the theory

known as the person-centered theory, is well known and his work is invaluable to today's

discoveries. Without these two revered individuals, it is possible that psychology would be seen

on a different landscaper, but it is not, and we continue to evolve our thoughts, knowledge, and

understanding of psychology as we as one human race continue to evolve.

Many professionals in the psychological arena consider Freud's psychoanalysis amounts

to a network of interpretations for the purpose of therapeutic treatments that can be applied to

many disorders found in the DSM. Freud started with the theory of psychoanalysis after Freud

worked with well-known J.M. Charcot, a neurologist. At this point, Freud sternly sided with the

notion that hysteria was caused by emotional disturbance and could not be caused by organic

symptoms with the individual's nervous system.

Freud applied his methods in treating individuals with mental disorders among others, by

applying the psychoanalytic methods he has worked on. During this time period of Freud's work,

some students and processional doctors among others joined him in his work to learn and assist.

Some notable individuals that joined his work were Alfred Adler and CG Jung. Psychoanalysis,

including theoretical underpinnings, has left their influential mark on psychiatry and psychology,

having much to do with the development of psychiatry and psychology as we know it today

(Psychoanalysis, 2011).

Psychoanalysis was a strong focus point of Freud's. Freud centered his attention on early

childhood, believing that early childhood is a critical time for gaining a more complete

understanding of an individual's psyche. Freud minded his intuition, coming to the conclusion

that conflicts in one's life did not occur later in life, but instead; realizing that conflicts occurred

during the individual's childhood. Many theories and other psychological processes were

possible because of Freud's theory that conflicts begin developing during the first part of a

child's life (Psychoanalysis, 2011).

Psychoanalysis is a key part of treatment for an individual however, it is important to

place distance between a patient receiving treatment and the professional administering

psychoanalysis treatment. Although keeping a distance during treatment, our world is evolving

and patients are seeking to deepen their interaction with their treating professional. As discussed

above, therapy has evolved, and in our modern world of psychology, the treating professional

does not always center the discovery aspect of treatment on the patients childhood, the focus

could also include current events in the patients life or focus on current events alone and, for the

moment, not discuss childhood. Psychoanalysis is keeping a foothold in our modern evolution of

psychology, however; psychoanalysis is quickly losing its foot hold, moving aside for new

developments such as cognitive treatments and other discoveries in the arena of neurobiology

psychoanalysis among other unrealized discoveries (2011).

C. Rogers was responsible for the creator behind person-centered psychotherapy.

Although Rogers had respect for Freud, Rogers did not accept Freud's idea that conflicts are

found only in childhood. Rogers also contended that individuals would mature and discover self-

actualization during an individual's lifetime (Cervone & Pervin, 2010). Rogers believed this

form of awareness was not psychotherapy but instead, Rogers believed this was counseling for

the individual. Most professional medical individuals believe that a relationship between a

patient and the professional is known as the patient-doctor relationship. Although this is a

common approach, Rogers had a different take on the subject. Rogers instead believed it was an

individual-to-individual relationship. With this approach, the patient is not doing all the talking,

rather the therapist is doing a majority of the talking with the patient. Rogers also was a avid user

of the word client instead of referring to the individual patient as patient. Rogers did this to give

the client an acknowledgement that the



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