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Deforestation: Situation, Causes, Effects and Solutions

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HA NOI UNIVERSITY

FOUNDATION STUDIES DEPARTMENT

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DEFORESTATION: SITUATION, CAUSES, EFFECTS AND SOLUTIONS

                                                        Teacher: Trinh Hai An

                                                        Student: Trieu Thi Thanh Mai

                                                        Class: 1TC-17

                                                        Course: EAP Writing

                                                                                

Hanoi, 8th February 2017

ABSTRACT

Deforestation exists for a long time and it is still a persistent problem for many countries in the world. Vietnam, my country, is one of the countries being under the threat of the situation. This paper, based on secondary research, discussed the situation and the causes of deforestation in a large scale. Moreover, the findings of the research with a purpose of showing negative effects are not new but never old to the life of the earth. Due to this, some solutions have been given to help people aware of it and have the right actions. All in all, the research paper draws the conclusion as a warning for all the countries having to face it with the hope to change the happening situation.

Table of Contents

    Abstract………………………………………………………………2

  1. Introduction………………………………………………………4
  2. Discussion of findings……………………………………………4
  1. Situation of deforestation…………………………………4
  2. Causes of deforestation…………………………………...4
  3. Effects of deforestation……………………………………5
  4. Solutions of deforestation…………………………………6
  1. Conclusion……………………………………………………….7

References……………………………………………………………8

  1. Introduction.

It cannot be denied that nature plays a important role in people’s lives.  Forest is one of the indispensable sources of life. However, the alarming situation is the amount of trees in the world have been declining significantly. “About 2000 trees per minute are cut down in the rainforests. Rather shockingly, 36 million acres of natural forest are lost each year. This is worrying and very serious.” (Eschooltoday). And it is called “deforestation”. As defined by Stuart L.Pimm, See Article History, deforestation, the clearing or thinning of forests by humans. On the other hand, “deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to utilize the land or trees”. (Futurism). It is not a matter of individual countries but a major problem in the world. Vietnam is one of the countries having to face this reality.  This paper, compiled as a secondary research, aims at providing a relatively comprehensive picture of this situation, causes, effects and giving some solutions to solve it.

  1. Discussion of findings.
  1. Situation of deforestation.

As reported by Agence France Presse: “According to several estimates, 60 percent of Vietnam’s forest cover was destroyed during the Vietnam War which ended in 1975. Half of the remainder has vanished since then, thanks to human activity. Households foraging for firewood, poachers, slash-and-burn cultivators and rapid urbanisation as well as industry’s insatiable hunger have been eating away at what was left. Government figures show that more than 2000 hectares (about 5000 acres) of forests were destroyed last year alone in Vietnam. The authorities are waging a losing battle against powerful marauders.” (FactsandDetails, n.d).

  1. Causes of deforestation.

There are many possible causes leading to this situation. First of all, agricultural expansion is one of the popular reasons and most concerned. It is estimated that there has been over 40% in the trees cleaned for the purpose of agriculture and wood. (Indiacelebrating, n.d). Due to the lack of financial visibility, the situation of forest destruction has been increasing. Just like that, people destroyed forest areas with a large need for food and farmland to grow on.

Secondly, increased urbanization is one of the major causes of deforestation. According to scientists at Columbia’s E3B department, urbanization and trade lead to tremendous rainforest destruction  (Nature Geoscience, n.d). This is also as said in the article “Urbanization”, Rhett Butler (July 27, 2012) claimed “Urban and residential area expansion cause significant forest loss, both in the consumption of building materials and as a source of land. While urbanization can reduce direct pressures on forests by the migration of rural residents to population centers, urban and suburban sprawl can be damaging when they occur in frontier settlements and boomtowns.”  And urbanization is becoming more and more widespread in over the world.

Additionally, due to rapid rise in explosive growth in population, it has become necessary to exploit forests so that variety of human needs can be met. They are road construction, expanding infrastructure, manufacturing, paper production coal mining operations and the requirement of wood for fuel. (Indiacelebrating, n.d).

Last but not least, many people are not aware of the importance of forests, they do not see the disadvantages of lacking of it immediately to have a proper view on the needs of forests conservation (Indiacelebrating, n.d).

  1. Effects of deforestation.

According to National Geographic (n.d): “seventy percent of the world’s plants and animals live in forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation”. Obiviously, this leads to species extinction. Ecological environment is lost, many species have no shelter and therefore the loss of biodiversity.

Deforestation is a contributing factor to climate change and is considered one of the main causes for the increase in greenhouse effect. (Futurism, n.d). Trees and plants taken in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and release oxygen. Removing and burning of wood causes the amount of carbon stored in the plant to be released into the air. For forests to absorb carbon, timber must be harvested and trees must be replanted. “It is estimated that 25% of the world total’s greenhouse gas production comes from deforestation alone”. (Climate Institute, April 18, 2017).

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