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Ecosystem: An Analysis of Its Concept and Components

Essay by   •  November 8, 2018  •  Lab Report  •  3,117 Words (13 Pages)  •  100 Views

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ABSTRACT

A study was conducted by a class divided into four groups to determine the components of a tropical evergreen forest. A 10 x 10 m area in the Arbor Square was provided for each group to assess the contents and classify them under biotic and abiotic components of the ecosystem. The relationship of both components within their environment and the factors that affect are further discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Biotic Components, Abiotic Components, Tropical Evergreen Forest


INTRODUCTION

        Ecosystem is defined in ecology as a biological community where organisms do act to their physical environment. It compromises a complex network of interconnected systems. The two basic components of an ecosystem include both the biotic and abiotic components. The non-living or also known as physic-chemical factors such as air, soil and water are under the category of abiotic factors. On the other hand, the living portion of an ecosystem compromises the association of a lot of interrelated populations belonging to different species occupying a common environment. Some of the populations are the animal, plant and microbial communities. It can also be categorized into three main classifications; the producers also known as the autotrophs, the consumers or the phagotrophs and lastly the decomposers or the saprotrophs. All these components establish relationships with the other components to survive and the concept of adaptation may also rise within an ecosystem when sudden changes occur. These changes may be caused by the natural forces or may also be anthropogenic or caused by human activities.

Nowadays, ecosystems tend to be degraded brought by destructions cause by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Poaching, hunting and conversion of forest lands to commercial or industrial lands, pollution, climate change and overexploitation of resources are just some of the factors affecting not only the components of an ecosystem, but the ecosystem as a whole.

Looking at these ecosystems and digging deeper into the concept of ecosystem and its relationship to its components with all the necessary pieces of information, it may be of help in determining which organism/s is/are frequently occurring at a specific area. It may also be a determining factor in recording which organism/s is/are limited in the site. Having these data, one can assess how a species vary within an ecosystem.  

 

Methodology

Data Collection

        To collect all the necessary data for this exercise, a 10x10 meter plot was established. The 10x10 meter plot was then used for the researchers to determine the biotic and abiotic components present at a specific ecosystem. The plot will be the site where each group would list down all the abiotic and biotic factors found at the site. They were also tasked to identify all the species present, how often these organisms occur at the area, its geographical range and distribution and its role in the ecosystem. After collecting all the data, each group would compare their records to the other groups.

Site Description

        The exercise was conducted at the Arbor Square found at the College of Forestry and Natural Resources. The site was well-suited for the exercise for there was presence of the two main components building up the ecosystem.  

RESULTS

Table 1. Biotic factors, species and the component of each species obtained within 10m x 40m plot established in Arbor Square, CFNR, UPLB.

Name of Organism

Scientific name

Number

Geographic Range

Act as what component in ecosystem

FLORA

Alangingi

Cayratia trifolia

moderate

exotic

producer

Alikbangon lalaki

Murdannia nudiflora

moderate

exotic

producer

Amlong

Epipremnum pinnatum

moderate

native

producer

Amugis

Koordersiodendron pinnatum

1

native

producer

Apoi-apoian

Gynandropsis gynandra

moderate

native

producer

Bagan-bagan

sparse

native

producer

Balitbitan

Cynometra ramiflora

2

native

producer

Banuyo

Wallaceodendron celebicum

1

native

producer

Big Leaf Mahogany

Swietenia macrophylla

10

exotic

producer

Bunga-bunga

Alternanthera sessilis

plenty

native

producer

Busikad

Kyllinga nemoralis

plenty

native

producer

Carabao grass

Paspalum conjugatum

plenty

exotic

producer

Dayang

Cyathula prostrata

moderate

exotic

producer

Dilang aso

Pseudelephantopus spicatus

moderate

native

producer

Fire tree

Delonix regia

1

exotic

producer

Gabing nuno

Typhonium trilobatum

plenty

exotic

producer

Karaskas

moderate

native

producer

Kastuli

Abelmoschus moschatus

sparse

native

producer

Kulapi

Echinochloa colona

moderate

indigenous

producer

Landrina

Borreria hispida

plenty

native

producer

Lipang-aso

Laportea interrupta

moderate

native

producer

Matang-araw

Melicope triphylla

moderate

native

producer

Molave

Vitex parviflora

1

native

producer

Moth orchid

Phalaenopsis amabilis

sparse

native

producer

Mutha

Cyperus rotundus

plenty

native

producer

Pagong-pagongan

Pyrrosia piloselloides

few

native

producer

Paper mulberry

Broussonetia papyrifera

moderate

exotic

producer

Pinka-pinkahan

moderate

native

producer

Prickly Narra

Pterocarpus indicus forma echinatus

8

native

producer

Sapin-sapin

Blechum pyramidatum

moderate

exotic

producer

Sapin-sapin

Blechum pyramidatum

moderate

exotic

producer

Spanish cedar

Cedrela odorata

1

exotic

producer

Takip kohol

Centella asiatica

few

exotic

producer

Tuhod manok

Justicia gendarussa

moderate

native

producer

Ubi-ubihan

Dioscorea bulbifera

few

native

producer

FUNGI

Ganoderma

Amauroderma rugosum

few

decomposer

Lichen ( crustose)

many

consumer

Algae

many

decomposer

ARTHROPODS

Ant

Monomorium minimum

Moderate

Consumer

Ants

Formicidae sp.

Many

Consumer

Ants

Camponotus sp. (big soldier ant)

few

Consumer

Ants

Polyrachis sp. (Black ant with distinct spine)

few

Consumer

Ants

Odontomachus sp. ( reddish soldier ant)

few

Consumer

Ants

Formicidae (Black small to medium-sized ants )

Many

Consumer

Ants

Odontomachus sp. (big black ant)

few

Consumer

Black Ant

Camponotus pennsylvanicus

Moderate

Consumer

Butterfly

Papilionoidea sp.

3

Consumer

Butterfly

Rhopalocera sp.

2

Consumer

Cricket

Gryllidae sp.  (Small; brownish color  crickets)

2

Consumer

Flies

few

Consumer

Grasshopper

Caelifera sp.

Moderate

Consumer

Grasshopper

Tettigonidae sp. (Long-horned green grasshopper)

2

Consumer

Locust

Tetrigidae sp. (Brown, small, pygmy locust)

Many

Consumer

Mosquitoes

few

Consumer

Pygmy grasshopper

Family:  Orthoptera

Moderate

Consumer

Small spiders

Araneae sp.

plenty

Consumer

Spider

1

Consumer

Squash Beetle

Anasa tristis

Few

Consumer

Termites

Moderate

Decomposer

Wasp

1

Consumer

...

...

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