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Endomembrane System and Cytoskeleton Vocab Notes

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  • Endomembrane System and cytoskeleton
  • Membrane: A pliable sheet-like structure acting as a boundary, lining, or partition in an organism
  • Always enclose a space (cisterna or vesicle)
  • Never open ended unless damaged
  • Biological membranes move from T-junctions
  • Consistency of olive oil in water, therefore no stiff barriers
  • Endomembrane System: System of compartments that generally includes all of the membrane-bound components of the cell (including the nuclear envelope) except for the mitochondria and chloroplast
  • Cisternae: Flattened, fluid filled tubules within the cell
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum: Network of membranous sacs extending throughout the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell (usually flat and sheet like but can be linked by tubular cisternae). Rough ER  Smooth ER
  • Membrane cisternae that ramify through the cytoplasm. The result is internal compartments and channels 
  • Provides surfaces for the synthesis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.
  • Connected to nuclear envelope
  • Rough ER: Endoplasmic reticulum with attached ribosomes and involved the synthesis of proteins to be exported from a cell
  • Smooth ER: Lacks attached ribosomes
  • Golgi Apparatus: Stacks of four to ten disc shaped cisternae functioning in the synthesis of polysaccharides, glycosylation of proteins and the sorting of molecules for storage or secretion
  • Golgi Stacks: functional extensions of the ER and are polar structures
  • All the polysaccharide in cells is manufactured within the Golgi apparatus
  • Polysaccharide may be attached to either protein or lipid molecules in the golgi stacks
  • Functions in the collection, packaging, and distribution of molecules synthesized elsewhere in the cell
  • Lysosomes: Membrane-bound component of a cell containing hydrolytic enzymes involved in the breakdown and recycling of many types of molecules  attached to the golgi apparatus
  • Single membrane bound
  • Autophagy: A process where cellular material becomes enclosed in a double membrane and degraded (macromolecules broken down into protein, carbohydrate, lipid and nucleic acid)
  • Acidic interior containing specialized enzymes
  • Microbodies: Main organelles for removing compounds generated within the cell
  • Surrounded by one membrane
  • Neutral pH: contain oxidative enzymes that generate hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme catalase to break down the hydrogen peroxide
  • Spherical in shape and contains crystalline inclusions  
  • Peroxisomes: Type of microbody contains enzymes and is involved in the production and degradation of peroxides and oxidation of amino acids and uric acid
  • Glycoxysomes: Contains 5 enzymes and is involved in the conversion of fatty acids into sugars
  • Plant Vacuoles: Plant version of lysosomes
  • Tonoplast: single membrane
  • Contains hydrolytic enzymes and serves as degradative compartments
  • Storage of nutrients, pigments and maintenance of cell turgor pressure
  • Cytoskeleton: Network of microtubules, microfilaments (actin) and intermediate filaments (eukaryotic cell)
  • Act as a form of scaffolding or as structural elements within the cytoplasm of cells, and are associated with maintaining cell shape
  • Movement of organelles within the cytoplasm and cell movement
  • Composed of PROTEIN not membrane
  • Microtubule: Hollow protein filament composed of tubulin proteins (tubulin sub units)
  • Actin Filament: Globular protein (actin sub units)
  • Form stiff structures that do not branch or contract
  • Polymerize and depolymerize to satisfy the cells needs
  • Polar and highly dynamic structures
  • Intermediate filament: Provides mechanical support to the cell. Intermediate in size between microtubules and microfilaments



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