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Energy Case

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Energy is defined as the ability to do work. It is neither created nor destroyed but it can be stored and converted into different forms that include electrical, light, mechanical, nuclear and chemical. Potential energy is stored energy while kinetic energy is energy in motion. This report looks into the physics of energy and addresses pertinent energy issues affecting the country.

Electricity is one of the fundamental forms of energy; it occurs naturally as lightning or it is produced by other means. It is formed because of movement current through a medium due to electron charge potential difference. Any matter is made up of atoms that are smallest element of a particle. The atom consists of subatomic particles i.e. electrons, neutrons and protons. The electrons revolve around the nucleus, made up of protons and neutrons, along an orbit. It is important to note that each atom has a specific number of protons, neutrons and electrons. Electrons are negatively charged, protons positively charged and neutrons are neutral. Electrons have the ability to flow from one atom to another altering the charge potential of an atom. A charged atom is known as an atom. The flow of electrons between consecutive atoms creates a current that generates electricity.

Energy is measured in joules and one thousand joules is equal to one British thermal unit. Good conductors are materials that offer limited resistance to the flow of current while insulators resist the flow of current through them. The measure of the ability of a material to conduct electricity is called resistance. An electric circuit is a continuous loop that allows the flow of current. The circuit consists of the energy source that offers the potential difference to facilitate the flow of current, the conductors made up of good conductors and the switch that acts as a current regulator. The force that propels electrons around a circuit is called a volt.

Electrical energy is generated through various ways. Thermal power plants generate electricity by the use of steam. Water is brought to the boiler, which heats it up to steam. Most boilers use coal, oil, natural gas or wood to provide the energy. The steam is transported through pipes from the boiler to the turbine where the heat energy in the steam is converted into mechanical energy by the turbines. Turbines consist of hundreds of blades arranged in a specific angle to facilitate rotary movement once subjected to high-pressure steam. A generator is connected to the turbine to convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The steam from the turbines is cooled off to water by cooling towers and then redirected back to the turbines. There are various ways. The shaft from the turbine is connected the generator which generates electricity by cutting the magnetic field to induce voltage into a copper wire.

From the generator power is transmitted to a transformer that steps up the voltage since it is efficient to transmit power in high voltage. From the power station, high voltage transmission



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