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3. Study [for AOL 5] the same event as an ethical (i.e., doing the right thing) system of inputs, process, and outputs circularly related to each other, and analyze the nature of ethical relationships between inputs, process and outputs that keeps them either turbulent or uncontrollable, or renders them controllable and predictable for humanity [20 marks].

Ethics provides a set of standards for behaviour that helps us to decide how we ought to act in a range of situations. Making choices such as religion, law, etc is confused with ethics. The situation is about Las Vegas massacre where Stephen Paddock opened fire on civilians. Around 60 people died and 550 injured. He used 21 different arms in this firing which were all legally bought. Thus the question arises that whether gun laws are inefficient or is it right for people to carry guns or is it right for risking the lives of people always. There are various questions which needs to be thought of and which needs to be answered to avoid such happenings in future. There can be various factors which affect the judgement of the situation analysis. There can be multiple evidences which will affect the judgement. Thus, here the unit of analysis of the situation revolves around the right to bear arms i.e. whether it is justified on the part of state to allow arms to the people or not. While understanding such problem from ethics perspective, according to the LEMS framework ethicality of the action needs to be taken into consideration. Thus I will be talking mostly on the ethicality aspect of the situation considering the unit of analysis. Whether it was the right thing to perform. America as a State needs to ask itself the first question that what holds dear to the country- is it the lives of the people or is it the civil liberty or rights of the people. To understand this situation, we must look at Sheila Bonde and Paul Firenze model on ethicality from Brown University. The model categories the ethical theory into three broad categories. i. Consequentialist Theory which are primarily concerned with the ethical consequences of particular actions ii. Non-consequentialist Theory which tend to be broadly concerned with the intentions of the person making ethical decisions about particular actions iii. Agent Centered Theory which are more concerned with the overall ethical status of individuals, or agents, and are less concerned to identify the morality of particular actions

Consequentialist Theory/Framework:

The consequential theory can be looked upon under three approaches:

1. Utilitarian Approach where consequences to the decision concerns large group of the people. The action which we take has always a good consequence and a bad consequence. The only difference that is created is in the weights of consequence. How much one is affecting the other determines the good that happens to the people. Thus, Ethical environmental action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected—government, corporations, the community, and the environment.

Thus, according to the current situation, banning of guns is the right thing to do as it will do a greater good to the citizens of America.

2. The Egoistic approach of ethical reasoning is the second approach where along with the group interest there is a need of self -interest also. This not only helps individual do the good but also help in the better understanding of society and performing good to the society at large. However, benefit of the society is just the outcome of self-interest.

Banning of guns will not only help individual develop confidence in the State but also will be willing to help the other people and will understand the importance of lives as he sees his.

3. The common good approach is the approach which aims to produce the best for the people. The betterment of the people is the only aim when it comes to the common good approach. Self-interest of an individual is not seen but the interest of the society at large. This approach to ethics underscores the networked aspects of society and emphasizes respect and compassion for others, especially those who are more vulnerable.

Thus, ethically, State should consider the lives of the people to more important as compared to liberty as State is the collective of the people. There cannot be any practices or claims if there are no citizens to practice them. Thus, right to bear arms should be banned for the greater good.




Deliberative process

What kind of outcomes should I produce (or try to produce)?

What are my

obligations in this

situation, and what are the things I should

never do?

What kind of person should I be (or try to be), and what will my actions show about my character?


Attention to the

future effects of an

action for all people who will be directly or indirect y affected by the action.


to the duties. that

exist prior to the

situation and determines obligations.

Attempts to discern




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