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determine war and peace. In the case of Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of

Congo, these transnational actors have exacerbated conflicts that were started by local

actors, with the commercial activities that became associated with the conflicts. The

extraction of oil in Nigeria, a venture which should have otherwise profited the locals of

the area, has rather led to running battles with the companies and government forces, to

the extent that state authority and sovereignty has been greatly undermined.

From this dissertation a correlation between globalization and wars in the four

African countries has been drawn. The hypothesis for this thesis, that globalization has

exacerbated Africa's conflicts is, at least not disproven. The level and intensity of these

conflicts appear to have increased as a result of globalization.


What is true of Africa at the beginning of this century need not be true at the end.

Africa's security challenges are serious, perhaps even dire, but not insurmountable. They

can be controlled with careful planning and wise leadership. One of the key determinants

of Africa's future will be the way in which its leaders approach the continents problems.

An important feature of any solution must be the establishment of a consensus in African

societies about the kind of security that is needed. In the broad sense, security should be

taken to mean not just the preservation of small ruling elites, but the protection and

preservation of all that the society considers to be important and valuable. This should

include the protection of individuals and groups from physical harm, and the preservation

of the economic and environmental heritage to be passed unto future generations. The

avoidance of arbitrary and coercive political rule is another security interest that must be

pursued. The development of a well-conceived national, sub regional and regional


security strategies that provide coherent paths towards identifying, advancing and

protecting societal interests must also be given priority.

Despite the divergence of views about globalization and its conflicts, there can be

no denying the fact that the pace of social change is quickening, that this change puts

great stress on individuals, social institutions like the family, and governments and that

something must be done to help individuals and societies adjust to change. There is the

need for the realization that the world shares



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