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Hart & Jones - How Do Rising Powers Rise - Critical Review

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Throughout this review I will present a summary of the Hart and Jones (2010) article ''How Do Rising Powers Rise''. Following this, I will convey several arguments identified throughout this article. I will then introduce conflicting opinions regarding rising power attributes, military predominance, American intelligence, the global financial crisis, and international relations with America. Together with my own critique I will present arguments regarding the legitimacy of the authors' findings.

Hart and Jones (2010) article provides circumstantial evidence suggesting that American superiority in global politics is substantially declining. In their view, countries suggested to be reshaping global power and influence are mainly that of the BRIC states which include Brazil, Russia, India and China. The authors' suggest that this alliance has enabled the rising powers to tactfully influence other actors' in political voting situations. While these particular states are defined as sharing common interests and personal advancements, their assumed bloc status suggests that they will remain supportive of each other but not at the cost of their own superiority. It is quite evident that these actors' main identifiable objective is to constitute arbitrary sovereignty.

With reference to the BRIC states, Hart and Jones (2010) contend that there is potential to reform the economics of this century on a global scale. On the contrary, Munslow and O'Dempsey (2009) convey how events such as America's victory in Vietnam accelerated the state to single superpower status. Judging by past catastrophic events that have evidently influenced the rise of America in the past could suggest that the US state may recover and maintain global superiority. Not to mention the new government of Obama, that may create a positive incline for American global leadership. Further to this, Glosny (2010) reports that the Chinese government believe it to be too early to predict US demise.

Attributes of rising powers are questionable, while some states are increasing in areas, it would seem others are declining dramatically. Hart and Jones (2010) argue that in order to maintain emerging power status a state must acquire a growing economy. Considering this information raises concern regarding India's inclusion of the rising power title. As identified by Shapell (2011) much of India's population survive on minimal resources. The argument one could present is how a state can be branded with a rising power title when a vast majority of its population live in poverty. Should India not draw its attention towards alleviating poverty and increasing economic security throughout its own population? This should be regarded as a priority before considering a states global political stance on a much grander scale.

Another factor to be considered in the rising power phenomenon relates to military power. Hart and Jones (2010) contend that military operations are increasing among the BRIC coalition. Can such an alliance generate a military power greater than that of the US? It was reported in the article ''Leaders: Incredible Shrinking Countries; Declining Populations'' (2006) that the state of Russia is expected to experience a twenty two percent decline in their population between 2005 and 2050. Considering Russia's projected decline in population presents the potential for inadequacies regarding the expansion of BRIC allied power in a military sense. This is a complete contradiction of the arguments set out by Hart and Jones (2010) which suggest that in order to adopt an emerging power title a state must have potential to generate a strong military force. If the population continues to decline in Russia it could have a strong impact on its military recruitment and development.

Furthermore, it is believed by Orme (1998) that national intelligence agencies enable state actors' to obtain knowledge regarding the intentions of adversaries and enemies and are of a vital importance when maintaining security. One could regard the intelligence capability of America to be phenomenal. In connection with this, Orme (1998) also proposes that the development in American intelligence



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