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In Terms of the Pathophysiology - Explain the Mechanism for the Clinical Features.

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In terms of the pathophysiology, explain the mechanism for the clinical features.

Heart failure is initiated when there is a reduction in cardiac output leading to decreased blood pressure and reduced tissue perfusion. Reduction of perfusion results in a decrease in delivery of vital nutrients to the cells (capillary bed).

The body responds to the low cardiac output and low blood pressure and it counteracts the effects of these by increasing the heart rate (tachycardia) to supply more vital nutrients to the body.

This low cardiac output and fast breathing (tachypnoea) leads to low carbon dioxide levels. Congestive heart failure results when disease weakens the heart so that the pumping action normally done can no longer meet the needs of the body. The patient then experiences shortness of breath. The response to that is hyperventilation which occurs in patients suffering from congestive heart failure during rest, sleep and exercise.

Correlate (explain) the laboratory data in terms of the diagnosis?

The patient has a high blood urea nitrogen, a high levels of creatinine (indicator of congestive heart failure and ,kidney problems), high total Bilirubin levels and high direct conjugated bilirubin as highlighted from the laboratory diagnostic tests. The tests also indicated low levels of total protein and albumin. An important test indicator for sodium, potassium and calcium electrolytes in the body was conducted in the diagnostic test and low levels of sodium and calcium were found suggesting hyponatremia and hypocalcaemia (indicator of congestive heart failure). The potassium levels were normal.

Urinalysis highlighted hyaline casts in urine which is indicative of kidney problems and the specific gravity of urine is quite high in comparison to normal which also indicates presence of high content substances in the urine.



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