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It - Communication and Technology

Essay by   •  May 21, 2018  •  Course Note  •  1,545 Words (7 Pages)  •  905 Views

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Peter drucker : “ he defined the knowledge worker, an individual who is well educated and who creates, modifies and synthesizes knowledge as fundamental part of work”

Information and knowledge are now important as labor, land and capital resources.

  • Data : raw, unformatted elements
  • Information : is a data transformed to have a meaning
  • knowledge :  ability to understand information, form opinions and make decisions or predictions

ICT is a support for information society.

Information and Communication technology have enabled the information of our society into the so-called Information society.

Digital format:

Bit ( binary digit ) = it’s the smallest unit of information that is held in a computer’s memory. It’s either 0 or 1.

Byte = 8 bits represent a byte

Digitizing —> any input the computer receives is translated into binary code

ASCII = encloses 128 bytes (extended version includes 256 bytes)

UNICODE = it uses 2 bytes (16 bits) for each character.

Digital convergence : is the flow of contents across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries …”

—> So you can have different objects/actions that can be represented through the same (digital) way.

Risk : information overload.

“getting information from internet it’s like taking a drink from an hydrant “


Information system: combination of six key elements:

  1. people
  2. processes
  3. data
  4. hardware
  5. software
  6. telecommunication networks

Information system is divided into 3 different levels:

  1. executive level
  2. managerial level
  3. operational level

3. Operational Level =

  • day to day business processes
  • interaction with customers
  • decisions are structured, recurring and often automatized by IS
  • IS used to:
  • optimize processes and understand causes of performance  
  • automate routine and repetitive activities

2. managerial level =

  • managers
  • it is used in order to: Automate the monitoring and controlling of operational activities
  • manager’s decisions : semistructured, moderately complex and medium long time horizon
  • IS can help with:
  • performance analytics
  • predictive analysis
  • providing key performance indicators KPI

1. Executive level =

  • the president, CEO, vice president and board of directors
  • decisions are : unstructured , long-term strategic issues, complex and non routine problems
  • IS is used to: obtain summaries of trends and projects, and provide KPI

  1. executive support systems ESS
  2. decision support systems DSS
  3. transaction processing systems TPS

Major task of IS

Automating : doing faster

Organizational : doing better

Strategy : doing smarter

Organizations use IS in order to :

  • be more efficient, productive and profitable
  • gain competitive advantages
  • reach more customers
  • improve services for their customer


Types of computer:


  • most expensive and powerful
  • large as multiple rooms
  • assisting solving massive scientific problems


  • very large computer
  • it’s present big corporation or public administration
  • can be a server


  • offers lower performance than a mainframe but greater than a microcomputer
  • it’s useful for activities as engineering or design


  • you can use it for a reduced range of activities
  • it is a personal computer

The IS infrastructure

  1. INPUT : enter data into a computer
  1. PROCESSING : transforms input into output
  2. OUTPUT :deliver informations to users
  3. STORING : store informations and datas
  4. TRANSMITTING : exchange informations and datas

Hardware : refers to the physical parts of a computer system

Software : refers to the intangible part of a computer system

1.Input technologies:

  • keyboard
  • mouse
  • webcam
  • microphone scanner
  • barcode (you can use it to have a faster payment or faster procedures )
  • QR code (an evolution of barcode, it is used by marketing and advertisements)
  • RFID (radio frequency identification : is a chip that is inserted into products, that thanks to a particular reader, can catches all the information stored)


The Central Unit is made by :                 CPU (central processing unit)


                                                RAM (random access memory)


  •  main component of a computer (brain)
  • made by silicon
  • there are some transistors that processes bits
  • is the responsible of all the computer’s processes

Moore’s Law : First CPU had 2,200 transistors, nowadays there are more than 2 millions


  • it’s a temporary memory and it supports actions of computers
  • primary storage
  • the idea is to have a memory which support the work of CPU

3. Output technologies

  • monitors of computers
  • touch screen

4. Storing

  • it’s a secondary storage memory , you can save your datas using there devices
  • floppy disk, hard disk , cd , dvd , flash memory
  • cloud computing , is a new idea for storing informations and also using software

5. Transmitting

  • thanks to the communication networks

How a computer works (software) :

  1. System software :
  • Collection of programs that control the basic operations of computer’s hardware
  • coordinates interactions between hardware,software and users
  • Main component it’s represented by operating system, then you have Utility and Driver

  • Operating system : useful for coordinates operations
  • it controls CPU
  • it manages files
  • it manages tasks
  • it supports application software
  • it defines the interface
  • Utility software : can support the activities of users, when there are technical problems
  • Drivers : are all the software that allow to use input and output technologies

2. Application software :

Allows you to perform a specific activity (our computer can work without these app.soft. but not without system software)



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