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Job Analysis and Motivation in Hrm

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A company needs a department to foster the success of the business. As always, an organization mostly relies on the ability of their manpower, and they have to admit that not all their employees' skills are enough to nurture the business's growth. It is good to determine the key areas of each worker's ability and measure it on how far they can do. And because of the problem about the manpower, the existence of the human resource department make the possible solutions be recognize. In the following article, it will explain the role of job analysis and design.

Job analysis is the process of identifying the tasks, responsibilities and the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes and other characteristics required to perform the job (Dessler, et al. 2007). Job analysis provides the basis for human resource development and management activities. For example, it provides necessary information for human resource planning. Nowadays, employees dislike work in one job for their whole life. An employee's current position description will be contrasted with the job they desire. It provides clear standards for personnel recruitment, remuneration, such as salary and bonus, are often depend on the job's required skill and education level, safety hazards, degree of responsibility and so on are all based on job analysis. It provides clear basis for personnel training development, the analysis show the skills and knowledge which is job required, The company may have acquired new assets and the employees may need to be trained on how to operate them, or the company may have recently developed new software and may need its employees to be taught how to use it. It provides help for performance assessment and review, clear performance standards ensure the rewords, and the fair rewards linked to the performance. An employee's actual performance with the performance standards will depend on job analysis. Job analysis helps the realization of foundation for organization.

Through the job analysis, employees can reflection and review their work content and work behavior, in order to help employees find their problems in working consciously (Patton, 2002). In the process of job analysis, human resource managers can fully understand the key aspects of business and business processes in organizations, in order to help human resource management increase to the strategic position. By means of job analysis, the top of organizations' operational management will fully understand employees' current work, and find cross between job duties and responsibilities vacancy, and through adjust the post to improve the organization synergies.

Job analysis describes in detail the characteristics and requirements for each work, and defining the relationship between rights and responsibilities for work, thereby laying the basis design for organizational structure. Through job analysis, especially in a broad sense, can fully reveal the organizational structure, make decision for the optimization of organizational structure and re-design. In addition, job analysis has link with manning quotas, manning quotas means according to compile and post, assign the right employee for each job process for the organization. In the modern enterprise management, effective job analysis can reduce the phenomenon like bloated, staff expansion, inefficiency and overstaffing.

Job analysis is also important for line managers. It beneficial to line managers understands work process deeply, in order to find problem in time, and transform or innovate on work process in time, so that improve work effective. In addition, job analysis can make line managers clear that achieve a task need what skills, it can help human resource department in recruitment and full work out the skills. Also, line managers charge for every employee's performance evaluation, feedback and urge them to improve their performance, and performance evaluation standards and performance goal setting are link to content of each task, all of these cannot go without job analysis.

Job design is concerned with how the tasks that are to be performed are combined to form a job, employee satisfaction is taken into consideration in designing the job, resulting in positive effects on staff morale and productivity (Dessler, et al. 2007). It means a job's content, the methods that are used on the job, and the way the job relates to other jobs in the organization (Fred & Jonathan, 2008). Job design changes the basic relationship between employees and functions. A scientific manager can handled it in this way on this problem, combine the material requirement of the job with the life characteristics of the employees, and then remove those who do not come up to the requirements. Behavioral scientists into the industry, they attempt to through selection and training employees to improve this process. However, scientific managers, they focus on employees, the job is seen as an immutable fixture. But job design breaks this tradition, it is based on the assumption which job itself on employee motivation, satisfaction and productivity have a strong impact.

Job design improve positive attitude in working. It is not attempt to change attitude at first, but rather job after getting fitting design, positive attitude will follows. Job design can renew pleasures for work, improve personal relationships, and make clear-cut job responsibility.

In a word, job analysis prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization, document the requirements of a job and the work performed, it is performed as a basis for later improvements. While job design consists of a job's content, the methods that are used on the job, and the way in which the job relates to other jobs in the organization (Roethlisberger, 2003). It typically is a function of the work to be done and the way in which management wants it to be carried out. These factors help explain why the same type of work may have a different impact on the motivation of human resources in various parts of the world and result in differing qualities of work life. So, the development of organizations cannot without job analysis and job design.

Motivating is a psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives. Motivating and



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