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Kashmir Crisis 1965

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TOPIC AREA: Kashmir Crisis 1965


In 1947, British rule in Indian continent ended with the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. He was leading the Hindu movement in India, while Mohammad Ali Jinnah was leading the Muslims in the country. As a result of the Muslim movement, Pakistan was created after a violent struggle. Pakistan and India easily concluded the sharing of the states however, Kashmir region created problems. The partition plan provided by the Indian Independence Act 1947, gave the rulers of Jammu and Kashmir the chance to choose to join India or Pakistan or to stay independent. The majority of the population in Kashmir consisted of Muslims (roughly 2/3) hence Pakistan rightly claimed that Kashmir should join them. Regardless of Pakistan's wishes Maharajah of Kashmir was unsure about this important issue. Jammu and Kashmir stayed independent for 72 days, with an understanding that they will soon decide their future. In fact, the Kashmiri leaders signed standstill agreements with both India and Pakistan to create time to think for their people. Unfortunately however, Pakistan was intolerant of this deliberation and the first signs of the war started with a tribe rebellion in southwest of Kashmir. Pakistan believes that this was a cry for help and entered the region from the north to support the tribal forces. In a couple of days, the tribal forces and Pakistani forces were able to make successful incursions. Seeing the rise of Muslim power, the Maharajah asked for military support from India and India offered accession. Therefore, the Maharajah agreed to join India. India thus tricked Kashmir into joining their nation. The Maharajah signed a legal document called the Instrument of Accession on October 1947. (This document in the opinion of Pakistan is obsolete.) As a result, India immediately entered region. The war continued until Indian leaders approached United Nations to end this. In January 1949, United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) went to the conflict area, to manage the ceasefire and since then has been remaining there. With the help of the UN, a ceasefire line (Line of Control) was established later on in the year.



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