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Organizational Commitment in the Globalization Era

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Organizational Commitment in the Globalization era:

In recent years, researchers have argued that the changing nature of employment.

Relationships has heightened the importance of understanding the dynamics of Commitment in organizations ( Hislop 2003; Dick, Becker and Mayer 2006). For

example, scholars have increasingly suggested that commitment is a necessary variable

that drives individual action (Cooper-Hakim and Viswesvaran 2005; Herrbach 2006).

It is also commonly theorized that the level of commitment is a major determinant of

Organizational level outcomes such as organizational citizenship behavior (Coyle-

Shapiro and Kessler 2000); performance (Meyer, Paunonen, Gellatly, Goffin and Jackson

1989; DeCotiis and Summers 1987); controllable absenteeism (Meyer and Allen 1997);

and psychological contract (Guest and Conway 1997).

OBJECTIVES

* To study the definition, attributes, stages and views of organizational commitment

* To analyze the reviews of organizational commitment.

* To analyze the various factors influencing organizational commitment and its consequences.

DEFINTION OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

Still (1983) defined organizational commitment as an individual's psychological bond to the organization, the job, or the career, a bond that comprises an affect for and attachment to the organization

Herscovitch and Meyer(2001) define organizational commitment as 'the degree to which an employee identifies with the goals and values of the organization and is willing to exert effort to help it succeed'. Loyalty is argued to be an important intervening variable between the structural conditions of work, and the values, and expectations, of employees, and their decision to stay, or leave.

According to Maume, D. J. (2006)"Organizational Commitment is typically measured by items tapping respondents' willingness to work hard to improve their companies, the fit between the firm's and the worker's values, reluctance to leave, and loyalty toward or pride taken in working for their employers

ATTRIBUTES OR FEATURES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

1. involves an attachment to the organization and its goals;

2. expresses itself through interactive processes;

3. implies an acceptance of the organization and its goals;

4. entails a willingness to contribute to the well-being of the organization and pursuit of its goals;

5. reflects an attitude toward the organization and its goals; and

6. is bound by time and space.

Based on those defining attributes, a theoretical definition of organizational commitment is as follows:

According to Merriam-Webster(2005)Organizational commitment is an attitude, bound by time and space and sustained through interactive processes, that arises from the individual's acceptance of the organization's goals and values, a willingness to contribute to that organization's affairs, and strong desire to maintain a good relationship with the organization.

STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

Accoding to (Brickman, Sorrentino, & Wortman, 1987) Commitment has five stages of development .These stages, which characterize the individual's dynamic interaction with the environment, are exploration, testing, passion, quiet boredom, and integration. Each stage creates the conditions for the next, but an awareness of all five stages gives insights into how individuals become committed.

The first stage is the exploratory stage of commitment in which individuals explore the consequences of a positive relationship with the organization. Commitments begin when these explorations lead to a positive orientation toward the organization.

The second stage is the testing stage of commitment. Individuals discover negative elements of the organization and start to assess their willingness and ability to deal with those elements. Individuals may seek more information to help them decide whether to continue the employment relationship.

The third stage is the passionate stage of commitment. After synthesizing the positive and negative elements from Stages 1 and 2, individuals develop a positive attitude toward their organization and willingly commit themselves to its goals and values. Not only are they accepting of the organization, they are willing to contribute to its well-being.

The fourth stage is the quiet-and-bored stage of commitment. Individuals feel that organizational activities have fallen into a humdrum because of the routine procedures in their job. Individuals may start seeking work that is more challenging

The fifth stage is the integrated stage of commitment. Individuals have integrated both the positive and negative elements of the organization into a commitment that is now more flexible, complex, and enduring than earlier forms of bonding. Individuals are able to act out their commitment as a matter of habit. Furthermore, their ambition to maintain a good relationship with their organization is stronger.

ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION

Organizational commitment has received considerable attention as a result of its ability to produce desirable outcomes for organizations. High rates of employee turnover results in greater inefficiencies in organizations as they must bear the costs associated with hiring and training new employees, as well as the costs of lost productivity when experienced workers leave. This is especially true in organizations where the organizational capital is primarily intellectual, that is, where employee knowledge, skills, and abilities form the basis for the services and deliverables of the organization, and high rates of turnover may lead to reduced productivity and reduced competitiveness. (Blau, G. (1993)

The consequences of organizational commitment go beyond turnover decisions by employees however, as on the job behaviors are also affected. The empirical literature supports the notion that higher levels of organizational commitment

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