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. Pre-Columbus

* Who inhabited the western hemisphere before 1492?

The Native Americans of North and South America.

Several "1st nations" had already risen and fallen, possibly came from Ice age bridge (75,000 years ago). Over 500 distinct languages.

* What were some of the diverse societies that lived in the western hemisphere?

The Mayas and the Aztecs lived in present day Mexico and Central America.

In the North lived The People of the Southwest, Eastern Woodland Peoples, Hopewell Culture, Mississippian Civilization...

People of Southwest: Pueblos (declined after 1150 due to drought, soil exhaustion)

Hopewell Culture: Lasted 100-400AD

Mississippian Civilization: declined because the large population overburdened the environment and depleting nearby forests and herds of deer

>>Last large-scale northern indian culture

huge city of Chahokia (near St. Louis) w/population of 15-20 thousand & 100+ burial mounds.

Didn't possess the military/civil skills of the Aztects/Toltecs, so remained small.

>>Overburdened populations, cooling climate after 1300, tuberculosis caused decline.

* What major South American nations of the early 16th century were conquered by the Spanish?

1519-1521 Hernan Cort├ęs conquered the Aztec Empire and destroyed its civilization.

Help from Malinali

1532-1535 Francisco Pizarro vanquishes the Incas

Half were already dead from disease spread by indian traders

The Mayans (weak because of two-century long drought) were almost completely wiped out by the time the conquistadors arrived because of disease, draught, and attacks from Toltecs & Aztecs

Spanish never fully conquered Mayans (no main city, but rather collection of smaller ones that all put up great resistance)



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