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Psychoanalytic Theory

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Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic theory believes that all early experiences influence all human behaviors. Freud recognized three provinces of the mind-id, ego, and the superego. Id being the most biological or physical function that is tied to selfishness, morality, and the principle of pleasure, first it acts on a more unconscious level. Ego is more of the mediator between id and superego, rationality and is always conscious. Superego is the moral system, the know how between right and wrong. Freud identified three levels of mental life- unconscious, preconscious, and conscious (Feist & Feist, 2009).

Some would say that Freud's theories were not based on experimental investigation but rather on subjective observations that Freud made of himself and his clinical patients. With Id, ego, and superego the case of Phineas Gage a railroad worker that had an accident that sent a rode metal iron through his skull suffered from no longer having the same personality he had prior to the accident thus support for Freud's idea concerning the pleasure principle of the id and the reality principle of the ego was supported. The reliability of Freud's unconscious and conscious theory is more hypothetical since there is no real location in the body(Feist & Feist, 2009).

Freud's experiences helped him in providing basic data to help evolve his theories. Were they to today's standers of testing, no but his basic idea and basic data helped pave the way for science today and having more understanding of personalities. Freud did not think of himself as a man of science but a man constructing a scientific theory (Feist & Feist, 2009).

Psychoanalytic theories have changed in application over the years when Freud started developing this theory he was more active in his approach. In later years he was more interested in uncovering repressed memories through association and dream analysis which lead him into the id, ego, and superego, conscious and unconscious theory

Individual Psychological Theory

Adler's assumptions are: a force behind behavior is the strive for success or superiority, subjective perceptions shape behavior, personality is unified and self-consistent, Social interests, A person's style of life, and peoples creative power (Feist & Feist, 2009).

Although Adler's theories are hard to show reliability one of his most important concepts of the assumption that present style of life determines early memories rather than vice versa is hard to either verify or falsify (Feist & Feist, 2009).

The good news about Adler's research does show some support with data collected regarding social interest, and style of life. Social interest scales have been developed as a result such early recollections, birth order and dreams can foster courage,



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