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Pyschological Intervention for Patients

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Psychological intervention helps for HIV patients that will provide a better quality of life

Ching Yee Leung

The University of Southern Queensland

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV) is the virus which causes the deadly Acquired immune syndrome ( AIDS). There is no vaccine against the HIV virus which is spread through the shared contact of blood and semen and there is not likely to be one in the near future (Caltabiano & Sarafino , 2002). The purpose of this article is to understand some of the stigma associated with HIV and also to examine the benefits psychological interventions including Information Motivation Behavioral Model ( IMB ) of antiretroviral therapy , intergenerational impact have on HIV patient and their significant others . The conclusion is a psychologist has done more than simply holding the hands of the HIV patient until death strikes.

Psychological intervention helps for HIV patients that will provide a better quality of life

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ) is a very high mortality chronic illness that is caused by a virus ( HIV) . Infection of this virus from infected person is through contacts of the patient body fluid with those of an uninfected person, generally through sexual practices or when intravenous drug users practice needles sharing. AIDS is a stigmatized illness characterized by factors of avoidance, social rejection, abuse and shame ( Swendeman et al, 2006) and psychological intervention would be helpful in the reduction of such trauma. Psychological intervention has been critical in helping HIV patients in improving their life quality through behavioral discipline in medication as in the IMB model. Caltabiano & Sarafino (2006) defined stress as a process in which the person plays an active role to influence the impact of the stressor through behavioral, cognitive and emotional strategies . The application of IMB seeks to reinforce these principles and apply methodology to help the HIV patients to adhere to a strict procedure of medication is a prerequisite to treatment success. Another area that will be reviewed is the impact of psychological intervention on AIDS patient children and grandchildren to help minimize these negative impacts over the future generation.

Highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART) is a important advance in the treatment of HIV infection as it serve to reduce the viral load of patients with HIV, improving their immune defense and physical health and thus leading to declines in HIV -related morbidity and mortality ( Jensen -Fangel et al 2004, as cited in Fisher & Fisher ,2006 ) In Chesney ( 2006 ) study (as cited in Fisher& Fisher ,2006 ) , the complexity of the Antiretroviral Therapy ( ART ) procedures sometimes involves more than 10 to 20 pills daily . This coupled with the experience of side effects and the prospect of lifelong treatment may result in adherence failure ( Hirsch et al., 1998, as cited in Fisher & Fisher )

Duran et al ( 2001) study (as cited in Fisher & Fisher, 2006 ) reported that HAART is far less tolerant of non adherence as compared with many other medication procedure to the extent that even brief or intermittent non adherence can cause severe negative outcomes.

Fisher & Fisher (2006) proposed an information motivation behavioral skills ( IMB) model of adherence to HAART that can be used to understand, predict and encourage adherence to HAART and hence improving the quality of life of the HIV patients. According to the IMB model of adherence, information that is relevant to adherence of HAART is necessary for consistent and correct use of treatment and such information will include specific medication know-how comprising of timing, quantity and what constitute an adequate level of HAART adherence and also information about potential drug interaction and side effects. The IMB model also expressed that an individual's motivation to adhere to HAART is based on the patient's personal and social motivation to adhere to the therapy. In Ajzen & Fishbein (1980) study ( as cited in Fisher & Fisher) , it was mentioned that high motivation is based on the patient beliefs about the outcome of adherence and evaluation of outcomes while social motivation depends on the patient's perception of social from significant others and the motivation of the patient to comply with referent others. The behavioral skills component of the IMB model consist of the individual objective abilities as well as the patient's perceived self -efficacy relating to the performing of the rather complex sequence of behavior that form the basis of the HAART regimens of medication. Such behavioral skills can include objective and perceived abilities to acquire, having access to, self cue and ability to self administer medication in strict accordance to the prescription.

The usefulness of the IMB was demonstrated in Starace ( 2006 ) study using a total participant of 100 in the regional AIDS treatment

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