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Success of the French Revolution

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The success of the French Revolution emboldened other countries across Europe to demand changes in their government. Each revolt had different causes and outcomes, but there are similarities that can be found in each case. All the revolts were started by middle-class liberals, but were taken up by the lower class as they became dissatisfied with the tentativeness of the middle-class. With few exceptions, all of Europe was touched by revolution. England was spared from revolt because they already had a constitutional monarchy, and there was little dissatisfaction with the government.

In France, the revolts lead to the establishment of the Second Empire. Napoleon III was elected president of the Second Republic, and used his seat as republican president to name himself Emperor of France.

Revolution in Prussia caused the downfall of German liberalism. After attempting to create a united Germany, Prussia lead the majority of the Germanic states back to conservative governments that had been temporarily sidelined by the revolution.

The end result of revolt in Austria was a reversion back to an absolute monarchy. By pitting different nationality against each other, Austrian emperor Franz Joseph was able to regain control of a government that had temporarily become a liberal and constitutional monarchy.

Although in the majority of instances little immediate change occurred as a result of revolution, over the long run almost everything the revolutionaries sought came to fruition.


Marxism is the name given to the scientific socialist theory based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They felt that a new social order called communism would rise out of remnants of a violent revolt against capitalism. In this communist society, private ownership of production means would be abolished and everyone would be free and equal.

One of the main ideas of Marxist theory is the exploitation of workers. Marx felt that it was a key element of capitalism and free markets, and that capitalism functions on the basis of paying workers less than the full value of their labor in order to enable to turn a profit.

Marx also believed that there is no job security. Since unemployed workers will always be willing to work for lower wages, no one will have job security.

Initially, governments and revolutionary groups alike generally ignored Marx's ideas. Over time this changed and Marx and Engels became two of the main socialist speakers, and socialists were the primary voice for the working classes.

Industrial Revolution Part Deaux

During the Second Industrial Revolution, several new industries developed, including chemicals, oil refining, steamship building, and electrical machinery. The ability to harness electricity was the most vital element to



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