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The Imperial Perspective

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Chapter4: The Imperial Perspective

- No imperial control over colonies, too expensive

- Americans were used to self-government

- Non-sensical policies: Considered citizens but no citizenship, no representation, etc.

English Administration of the Colonies

- All colonies except Georgia had pre-glorious rev. charters; they were "dependencies of the

crown"

- Privy Council

o Body of 30-40 advisers appointed & responsible to the king only (1st line of colonial ctrl)

o 1634 King Charles I colonial affairs to 11: Lords Commissioners for Plantations in General

- Mercantile System

o Navigation Act 1651

- No foreign shipping to/from colonies

- All goods must be imported to England or arrive on English ships & English crew

- European goods must come direct from origin

- Assumes fixed amount of silver & gold; direct all economic activities; limit imports

- Navigation Act of 1660

- Crew must be ¾ English

- Certain goods only shipped to England or colonies

- Tobacco, cotton, indigo, ginger, dyewoods, sugar

- ↑ called enumerated list

- Also, masts, copper ore, fur

- Navi Act 1663

- England funnel for all colonial imports

- Aka Staple Act

- Navi Act 1673 (Plantation Duty Act)

- Captain must give bond to land the enumerated articles in England

- Enforcement of Navi Acts spotty

- 1676 Massachusetts took property rights in New Hampshire & Maine

- Lords of Trade - made from privy council

- Dominion of New England

- All colonies south through NJ

- Sir Edmund Andros (tactless, efficient soldier)

- Extended rule over Conn., RI, NY, E & W NJ

- Resented: taxation w/o representation, took over Puritan church for Anglican

- After Glorious Revolution, arrested & former gov't reinstated

- New governor to replace Jacob Leisler (New York)

- Resisted & hanged for treason

- 4 yrs later parliament declared not guilty

- Maryland (1715) & Penn. (1694) Became proprietorships again

- John Locke

- Two Treatises on Gov't (1690)

- 1st- refused divine right of kings

- 2nd- contract theory of govnerment

- People had natural rights to life, liberty & property

- Board of Trade - (Lords of Trade and Plantation) colonial officials reported to them, investigated the -enforcement of the Navigation Acts

- Salutary Neglect

- Board of Trade under George I & II became interested in their salaries mainly Habit of Self-Government

- Maryland, Penn, & Delaware governor was choice of proprietor

- Conn. & RI elected governor until the end of the colonial period

- Governor's Powers:

- Absolute Veto

- Decide when/where assembly meets

- Adjourn & dissolve assembly

- Postpone elections

- Appoint/remove officials

- Command militia/navy

- Grant pardons

- Governor & council were highest court

- Assemblies' Powers

- Elected body

- Populate vote in counties/towns

- Religious tests abandoned after Toleration Act of 1689

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