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Why Do People Commit Crimes

Essay by   •  April 3, 2013  •  Essay  •  2,602 Words (11 Pages)  •  1,999 Views

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The above question can be answered by denoting to the disparate theories trying to clarify the why of offense and deviance. The pursuing theories of offense and deviance ought to be debated in detail in order to finish on drive of people to commit offense and deviance:

 The Physiological or Biological theories of crime and deviance

 The psychological theories of crime and deviance

 The sociological theories of crime and deviance

The Physiological Theories or Biological theories of crime and deviance.

Most Physiological or Biological theories of offense and deviance squabble that particular people are extra prone to deviance than others because of their genetic make-up. Genetically received characteristics whichever undeviatingly cause or predispose them towards deviance. The pursuing researchers can be believed for an elaboration of this theory:

 Cesare Lombroso - criminals had peculiar bodily characteristics

 Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck - the type of physical build predispose people to crime

 Klinefelter's Syndrome - British criminologist identifying the Y chromosome for being delinquent

 Henry E. Kelly - Chemical Imbalances in the body like Hypoglycemia, can lead to crime and deviance

However Physiological or Biological theories of crime and deviance have been highly criticized. The criticism should be listed at the end of the elaboration.

 Cesare Lombroso - criminals had peculiar bodily characteristics(Evolutionary Theory)

Cesare Lombroso, an Italian Doctor of the 19th century logical explanations of human actions was a researcher who endeavored to link biology to offense, therefore clarifying the convict drive according to the biological make-up. Lombroso, in his book L'Uomo Delinquente(1876), clashed that convicts were throwbacks to an preceding and extra primitive form of human being. He asserted to have recognized a number of genetically ambitious characteristics that were frequently discovered in criminals. The genetically ambitious characteristics are colossal jaws, elevated cheek bones, colossal ears, supplementary nipples, toes and fingers, and an insensitivity to pain. He believed that these were the external signals of a possible criminal. Therefore the key believed that he utilized was atavism: that is criminality was normal of less-developed individuals.

 Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck - the type of physical build predispose people to crime

The Gluecks upheld Lombroso's theory of biological determination by asserting to have discovered a causal connection amid physical craft and delinquent activity. They squabble that the bodily assembly of people predispose them to crime. Therefore people possessing a 'mesomorphic' body kind, that is stocky and rounded people, incline to be extra alert and hostile than those of the supplementary builds. The 'mesomorph' is prone to committing offenses

 Klinefelter's Syndrome - British criminologist identifying the Y chromosome for being delinquent

Modern biological theories are extra probable to be distressed alongside biochemistry and genetics than alongside what people gaze like. British criminologist like Klinefelter trusted they had discovered the precise genetic cause of criminality that is chromosome abnormalities. Chromosomes send received characteristics from parents to children. Normally females have two X chromosomes, as males have one X and one Y. Sporadically a little males could have an supplementary chromosome, that is an supplementary Y, therefore XYY (males). A number of researchers discovered that there was an scarcely elevated proportion of men alongside this chromosomal abnormality in elevated protection prisons for the mentally ill.

-Females - XX

-Normal Males - XY

-Criminal Males - XYY

 Henry E. Kelly - Chemical Imbalances in the body like Hypoglycemia, can lead to crime and deviance

Biochemical theories of offenses elevated by researchers like Kelly trusts that chemical imbalances in the body can cause crime. People possessing 'Hypoglycemia', a condition in that there is too far sugar in the bloods, leads sufferers to commit crimes. Vitamin deficiencies could, according to Kelly, have the alike effect. Others squabble that convicts have lower levels of Serotonin, a mind chemical that lessens aggressiveness, that make them extra aggressive.

The Psychological Theories of crime and deviance.

The Psychological Theories of crime and deviance share certain similarities with biological theories. They see the deviant as different from the population as a whole and the adnormality predisposes him or her to deviance.

However psychological theories differ in that they see the deviant's sickness and abnormality as lying in the mind rather than the body. The following Psychologist can be considered as be reference to the explanation of this theory;

 Hans Eysenck - individuals inherit different personality which predisposes them to crime(personality theory).

 John Bowlby - criminals are people who lack emotional security (maternal deprivation)

 Pre-Menstrual Tension(PMT) - the predisposition of females for crime

However Psychological theory of offense and deviance has been exceedingly criticized. The criticism ought to be tabulated at concludes of the elaboration.

 Hans Eysenck - individuals inherit different personality which predisposes them to crime(personality theory).

 Hans Eysenck, the British Psychologist, has incorporated the physiological agent in his theory but allocated far emphasis on the mental processes. He said that there continue a link amid genetically established personality characteristics and convict behaviour. He asserted that people receive disparate personality traits that predispose them to crime. Therefore criminality is a received characteristic like personality and intelligence. Eysenck trusted that there are two frank personalities; the introvert and the extrovert,

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