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Annotated Bibliography

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The concept that will be focused on in this paper will be 'race'. Race is a noun that generally defines the term in which mankind use to divide people into groups according to their physical and culture characteristics. It has been applied to the biological and sociological views of ethnicity of human's characteristics and cultural differences as well as the context of sociological views of race in class.

Race was early looked upon on the basis of real and imagined physiological and biological differences. These differences were thought to explain a person's mental capacity and physical inferiority to each other (Hall, S. 1997). Due to the differences between the biological and physiological features of the 'Black' and 'White' race, the belief system of hierarchy that 'whites' were superior to the 'Black' race was created. The 'Whites' based upon that due to the fact that the 'Black' race had a lack of civilized modification to their sexual and social life and that they relied upon their customs and rituals to uphold their culture and social order within their race, and that they had no formal civil institutions. So there for the 'White' race saw them as 'pollution' to their race (Hall, S. 1997). In the history of race in Australia the 'white' race came up with the idea that due to the 'black' race been inferior that Australia should have a 'white Australian' only excepting people of European ancestry (Jupp, J. 2007). Which lead to the assimilation of the indigenous people and lack of cultural maintenance of the culture into the 21st century (Hunter, B. 2008).

Race then became to look more upon then just the physical and biological appearance they could see among people to also the way in which people interacted in their daily lives, their culture as it is referred to by sociologist. Through the nineteenth century they began to realise that they could base an argument upon that there are more mediate links between race and culture (Hall, S. 1997). The 'white' race began to reduce people down to a few physical and cultural characteristics, which entailed the attitude of stereotyping people by their race (Hall, S. 1997). This stereotyping is still around in the 21st century¬ł when it comes to the attitude about refugees, Australia fears that Asia would move in upon a weakly defended Australia, and that due to 2001 terrorist attacks Australia feared any Muslim seekers entering into the country (Jupp, J. 2007 ).

Race has also been placed in arguments over the class of people. Due to people's power of position, authority and power of property, they would compare themselves with who did not have the same through racist practices (Essed, P. 2002). Not only can people been seen as a race due to the physical and cultural difference they can also then be compared by the class they belong to. The two concepts of race been of meaning of ethnicity and class is entwined in the everyday running of life, a group can have racism put upon them on a daily basis due to the complex practices through the heterogeneous relations,



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