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Brain and Consciousness

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Among the scientists, there has lately been an argument regarding the connection present between the brain and consciousness. While some believe that the brain determines consciousness by the neurons, synapses, and transmitters, there are also multiple studies supporting the opposing theories, which state that consciousness is what affects the brain functioning. Some of the theories are based on the scientific evidence or the researchers, while others based on the personal beliefs and perception of the world of the authors. Thus, this essay aims at analyzing the current studies and distinguishing if the brain determines consciousness or otherwise.

Naturally, it would be hard to accept that consciousness is only the result of the brain activity, for there is a duality of the brain, as a matter, and consciousness. There are some studies which state that the brain affects consciousness, however, the influence happens both ways, and consciousness affects the brain, as well ("How Does The Human Brain Create Consciousness?", 2016). In this is to be true, the brain activity with the neurons transmitters and synapses would partly influence the consciousness, and consciousness would affect the ways the brain reacts to the person's surroundings.

However, the presumptions of the brain fully determining consciousness may be found in multiple neurological studies. As an argument for the theory, Jacob Sage, M.D. (2011), provides the fact that various mental dysfunctions originate strictly from the brain diseases. In this case, the brain would control the person's state of mind, and consciousness would not have an ability to affect the matter. He claims that the dualists are mostly concerned about "how is it possible that everything can be interpreted as a bunch of neurons?", and that people's emotions could not be a result of the biological processes, without providing much evidence, thus they are scientifically unsupported (Sage, 2011).

What is more, there are some scientists who claim the brain and consciousness do not influence one another equally, but that consciousness is the basis for the brain activity. For instance, Max Planck, a theoretical physicist, who won the Nobel Prize in 1918 for establishing the quantum theory, regarded consciousness as fundamental and matter, the brain, as a derivative from it (Walia, 2014). Some of the supporters of the theory state that the human physicality is not primary for the consciousness at all. (Walia, 2014). Thus, they decline the necessity of the brain activity for the functioning of the human consciousness. However, their claims are not supported scientifically, and cannot be thought of as the only real theory.

Concluding, at this point in the research, there is not enough evidence to support any of the presented theories as for the only correct one. Therefore, further extended studies should be done to assume any of



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