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Challenges Encountered in B2c E-Commerce: Online Shopping

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Challenges encountered in B2C E-Commerce: Online Shopping

A Thesis Submitted to Lahore School of Economics


M. Zeeshan Arain


Award of Degree of Bachelors of Business Administration (Honors) in

Finance and Marketing

Session: 2011 to 2015


Certified that M.Zeeshan Arain, id No. 11U0411, Session 2011 to 2015  has carried out and completed the research project entitled “Challenges encountered in B2C E-Commerce: Online Shopping” under my supervision for requirement for the award of Degree of Bachelor of business Administration Honors (Majors) by Lahore School of Economics.

                                                                        Research supervisor

                                                                                                   (Zehra Raza)                                                                                                                                                                                                        Lahore School of Economics





1.1 - Overview        

1.2 - Background        

1.3 - Online Shopping in Pakistan        

1.4 - Online Shopping in the world        

1.5 - Research Question and Significance of Study        

1.6 - Theoretical Framework        



3.1 - Research type        

3.2 - Data type and research period        

3.3 - Population and planned sample        

3.4 - Instrument Description        

3.5 - Research hypothesis        

3.6 - Techniques        

3.7 - Data analysis        

3.8 - Data interpretation        


4.1 - Descriptive Statistics        

4.2 - CFA        

4.3 - Default Model        

4.4 - Cronbach Alphas        

4.5 - Individual Cronbach’s Alphas        

4.6 - Regression Analysis        

4.7 - Model Summary        

4.8 - ANOVA        

4.10 - Hypotheses testing        

4.11 - Correlation        

4.12 - Conclusion        

Managerial Implications        

Limitations and future research        



Appendix A        


Appendix B        



Default Model        

Cronbach’s Alpha        

Individual Cronbach’s Alpha        

Model Summary        


Coefficients Table        


Appendix C        



I would like to express my gratitude to all those who helped me during the whole of my project. I gratefully acknowledge the help of my supervisor, Ms. Zehra Raza, who has offered me valuable suggestions in the academic studies. In the whole of final project, she has spent much time to help me and provided me with inspiring advice. Without her patient instructions, insightful criticisms and expert guidance, the completion of this project would not have been possible.

In the end, my gratitude also extends to my family and friends who have been assisting, supporting and caring for me all of my life.


The research reported in this thesis was on “Challenges encountered in B2C E-Commerce: Online Shopping”.  The purpose of research was to study the socio-economic impact of inappropriate disposal of hospital wastes on the health of the employees and to suggest measures to accomplish it on better lines. The secondary data was collected by consultation of literature in the libraries and Internet and also from the material printed by different hospitals of Lahore. The primary data was gathered by floating questionnaires and conducting interviews. SPSS software was applied to analyze data for frequencies regression parameters and cross tabulation the results were interpreted by usual principles of statistics. The findings suggested that the improper disposal of hospital wastes have a significant impact on the health of employees associated with disposal business. They get infected from different diseases caused by hospital waste. Thus, the social cost of avoiding these diseases was also determined. These were quiet high and could not be borne by the poor health employees.



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