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Civil Right

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Introduction

From the earliest years of settlement in North America, whites enslaved and oppressed black people. Although the Civil War finally brought about the abolition of slavery, a harsh system of white supremacy persisted thereafter. In the early twentieth century, African Americans in the South and in many parts of nearby border states were banned from associating with whites in a host of institutions and public accommodations--schools, hospitals, homes, rest rooms, waiting rooms, railroad cars, hotels, restaurants, lunch counters, parks and beaches, swimming pools, libraries, concert halls, and movie theaters. Moreover, some areas posted signs, "Negroes and Dogs Not Allowed." This paper is going to talk about the civil rights.

Beginning the Black rights movement

The progress of equal rights for blacks in the U.S. has been going on for over two hundred years. Since the first colonists settled in the Americas, slaves were a common piece of property. This identity as property was reinforced when the United States Constitution counted slaves as 3/5 of a human. After the civil war, a series of laws and the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth revision tried to set all citizens on the same level. Unfortunately, as a result of, Jim Crow Laws were enacted as a way of segregating blacks and whites. Then during the middle of the 20th century the second reconstruction began and civil rights movements attempted to fix the problems with racism in America. It could surmise that civil had the most positive effect on the civil rights movement.

Effort to progress for Civil right

People and lawyers tried to repeal law involving discrimination and enact new ones to fight racism or to integrate. One of the most famous cases advancing civil rights was Brown v. Topeka Board (349, 1954) of Education in 1954. It said that segregation was unequal and therefore unconstitutional. This was preceded by a less publicized, but similar case "Sweatt v. Painter" (629, 1950) saying that segregated law schools at the University of Texas violated the Equal Protection Clause. In 1967, the Loving v. Virginia (388, 1967) case judged that the banning of interracial marriages was also unconstitutional. In a more radically judged decision in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg, (402, 1970) schools were ordered to integrate schools even where there were no black or no whites. The judicial system was very effective in that it controlled the law of the land, and people could not act against decision of Supreme Court. It was ineffective too, in that all judges at the time were white and many blacks had poor legal aid.

New Organizations to improve themselves by Blacks

Some Blacks tried to make some organizations to protect their rights. Today, some of the organizations exist to now.

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