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Computer Technology

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Computer technology has developed tremendously over the ages. This raises concern over the security of the information and the system as a whole. Security is a crucial factor in computing. In the information and technology field it is very important for one to have a secure system (Baase 1996). Due to the invention of internet, computer systems are vulnerable to attacks and unethical activities such as fraud and hacking. When formulating security policies and plan for computer systems, ethics and legal aspects are key factors for consideration. These two aspects work hand in hand. It entails the practices that computer professionals have (Beekman 2002). Ethics incorporates; good value, code of conduct, moral value, principles and virtues. A good security policy should provide awareness of the vulnerability and consequences of the computer attacks. It should provide a well equipped technology that offers safety to all computer users. The policy should set up mechanism to keep watch, prevent and handle all any possible cyber attack. It should devise a legal regulatory framework to deal with the offenders (Maeve, Cummings and McCubbrey 2005). The experts have an obligation to provide a comfortable accessibility of the computer systems while still making secure.

Different fields where computer is applicable dictate different principles are put into practice. This is preceded by the fact that computer crimes have become a common challenge. These crime resulted from, the invention of computer viruses (Silver, Massanari and Steve 2006). The viruses are responsible for the increase in number of cyber attacks. Most people depend on Computer and telecommunication technology for communication purposes and as such the computer systems are becoming vulnerable to cyberspace evils and insecurity. This makes cyberspace a serious security concern. The rise in cyber vandalism prompts tough security policies in place to curb this issue (Kizza 2002). Computer ethics should applied when making decision that involve computer technology especially security plans. By applying these computer ethics it makes one to behave like a professional and makes one to avoid computer abuse and catastrophes (Baase 1996).

Organizations have a huge ethical and legal obligation to protect themselves from illegal activities by their employees. The computer surveillance is the recent way to strengthen the computer security system (Maeve, Cummings and McCubbrey 2005). Computer professional and administrators often monitor computer users. For instance in workplaces and institutions have blocked access to websites that are prone to viruses and malware. The risk of changing internal control is factored by the new technology, new information system and rapid growth of ICT. Thus the companies use internet management software which detects any form of misuse of companies' computer (Kizza 2002). This enables the company to curb the issue of downloading illegal software from the internet and other inappropriate practices such as sending abusive messages. Institutions are also using powerful antivirus to protect their system from virus attacks. The ethical issue behind computerized monitoring is balancing the rights of the users (Caloyannides 2004). Computer surveillance undermines trust of the user while at the same time it reduces autonomy. Computer professionals should establish a code of ethics that will be used to control computer monitoring and safeguard privacy (Jewkes and Yar 2009).

The code of ethics should permit information that is relevant to be channeled through the system. The administrator should inform the computer users that they are monitoring their internet activities (Baase 1996). Computer users should have an opportunity to access the information generated by the monitoring system. To improve privacy the system should provide access to search queries and data on the web (Beekman 2002). The surveillance system should not limit the user from tracking and locating useful information. The international law's governing ICT should limit individuals who provide illegal material or services on internet. The legislation should evaluate all information that is available in the internet. The legal and regulations frameworks have developed to curb internet crime problems. This misuse of computer is fuelled by technologically literate people (Baase 1996). Professionals have to come up with specific and clear laws that will control the security problem and criminal conduct. These legislations put certain practices to be illegal. Such practices include; alteration of images, computer sabotage, unauthorized access, violation of copyright, possessing information that can be viewed to be a threat to national security and terrorism acts (Beekman 2002). This means that the legal framework has standardized the offences to a global nature and all the offenders and victims in divergent jurisdiction are liable to punishment by these laws.

Despite having the laws that govern cyberspace it is very important to have an internet policing body within the organization. The non regulatory bodies, internet providers, global interest groups and private security come in handy for such a job. It will enable to reduce incidences of cyber bullying, hate crime fraud hackers, identity theft, child abuse and other crimes affiliated to online auctions (Baase 1996). The use of internet policing has led to online crime control and taking up of responsibility by computer users to value their protection and security in the internet. This has widely increased the awareness of criminal justice by the computer users and organizations.

There is great need to provide privacy and civil right policies. The objective of these policies is to provide a justice system that for the computer users which give them moral right to enjoy computer services without interference (Baase 1996). It also seeks to make all personal identifiable information confidential. The civil right to be observed ensures that every person who uses ICT receives protection under the law. It also allows one to exercise privileges that are offered by ICT. Computer related threats



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