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Diabetes and Exercise

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition associate with hyperglycaemia caused by a deficiency in insulin due to either an insulin resistance, reduced insulin secretion or both (McPhee & Hammer, 2006; Fox, 2009 & National Heath Service, 2010). Diabetes can be classified in to four different categories, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and other specific types; although most individuals diagnosed with diabetes fall into the type 1 or type 2 categories (Peirce, 1999). diabetes is an incurable condition that in the United Kingdom alone affects approximately 2.8 million people, with around 1 million people thought to have type 2 diabetes that is undiagnosed (National Health Service, 2010). As the symptoms of diabetes are long lasting and are merely managed rather than cured diabetes falls into the category of a chronic disease; while the complications of diabetes can be acute complications such as hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or nonketotic hyperosmolar coma or more long-term complications such as cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, retinal damage (McPhee & Hammer, 2006; Fox, 2009 ; National Heath Service, 2010 & Powers & Howley, 2009).

Type 1 diabetes; which is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, early onset diabetes or juvenile diabetes; occurs when an individuals body does not produce insulin and normally develops early in life, often diagnosed in the teenage years. Type 1 diabetes is far less prevalent than type 2 diabetes and people diagnosed with type 1 diabetes are required to monitor their blood glucose levels, watch their diet and administer insulin injections for the rest of their lives. Symptoms of type 1 diabets include


Fox, S.I (2009). Human physiology. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

McPhee, S.J. & Hammer, G.D (2010). Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

National Health Service. (2010). Diabetes. Available: Last accessed 5th May 2011.

Peirce, N.S. (1999). Diabetes and Exercise. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 33, p161-173.

Powers, S.K. & Howley, E.T (2009). Exercise physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness. 7th ed. New York City, NY: McGraw-Hill



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