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Emotional Intelligence and Its Affect on Academic Performance

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Emotional intelligence is ability to understand our own emotions and those of others and to apply this information to our daily lives (Lilienfeld, Lynn, Namy, Woolf, 2009). It's the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions (Goldman, 1996). Besides that, according to three studies about emotional intelligence and its influences on academic performance, people can also know that emotional intelligence is also a predictor of academic performance and studying success. All three articles did describe three different study methods and different goals; however, they all practiced on college student. The first study, "The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school", is about trait relationship between emotional intelligence and cognitive ability and academic performance. For examples, student with high emotional intelligence are likely to absence and excluded from school and most emotional intelligence effects continue to exits even when that person has controlling their personality variance (Petrides, Frederickson & Furnham, 2002). The second article, "Trait emotional intelligence and preference for intuition and deliberation: Respective influence on academic performance", considers about the role of trait emotional intelligence and preference for intuition and deliberation in short-term academic performance. Its results are relationships between trait emotional intelligence, preference for intuition, deliberation, and positive and negative affect before and after exam; moreover, emotional intelligence also plays a role with stress appraisal (Laborde, Dosseville & Scelles, 2010). The last paper, "Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university"", focus on examine relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success. The emotional intelligence of student who perseveres in university may have difference when starting from ending the studying program (Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan & Majeski, 2004).

Focus on the study "Trait emotional intelligence, preference for intuition, deliberation influence on academic performance", the one that has the most result just by simple quiz and easy to understand methods. This experiment did not only concentrate on emotional intelligence, but it did also mention about the other aspects that we have not studied in PSY 204, which are preference for intuition and deliberation. Preference for intuition and deliberation means the two different strategies of making decision for each person. People who have preference for intuition might like making their decision intuitively on an affect based manner. Besides that, some people might like making decision thoughtfully (Betsch, 2004). Moreover, the decision making are also depended on situation, a person might make their choices base on either feeling or thinking (Betsch, 2008). Both preferences for intuition and deliberation present for two different ways of thinking so that is why they can affect academic performance (Cools & Van den Broeck, 2007). The material of this quiz are: the positive and negative schedule scale (PANAS) (Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988) which has the reliability is between 0.90 and 0.91 for positive affect and 0.80 and 0.84 for negative affect (Gaudreau et al., 2006); trait emotional intelligence questionnaire (TEIQUe) (Petrides, 2009) which has reliability between 0.94 and 0.95 (Mikolajczak et al., 2007); and preference for intuition and deliberation (PID) (Betsch, 2004) which has reliability was 0.76 for preference deliberation and 0.70 for preference for intuition (Richetin, et al. submitted for publication). All of those questionnaires are aimed to access the positive and negative effect, trait emotional intelligence and to evaluate the decision- making style of individual. The whole test was long 2 hours, at first; student had to watch a 45-minute video lecture which they had never seen before, they were required to fill the PANAS before and after lecture. After that they have to answer 25 multiple choice question in 15 minutes, and then they were asked to fill the TEIQue and the PID. All tests were divided into two genders male and female and then analysis into the final result. The student did not have the preparation and all the questionnaires have high reliability that made the final result credibility. Moreover, people can find out the relationships between emotional intelligence, preference for intuition and deliberation, and negative and positive affects and multiple choice question score and which can be considered as strengths of this study.

The findings of this study are both emotional intelligence and preference for intuition and deliberation are importance for explaining the cognitive functioning of the individual in stressful task. They are can be assumed as a predictor of academic outcome. Trait emotional intelligence predicted significantly positive the multiple choice question score; PID- deliberation predicted significantly positively positive affect before and after the exam; trait emotional intelligence predicted significantly negative affect before and after the exam; preference for intuition predicted significantly positively negative affect before and after the exam. Besides that, the distinguished gender that confirmed a previous result is that males were found to achieve a higher score on trait emotional intelligence than female (Mikolajczak et al., 2007) and the high trait emotional intelligence individuals did show their better self - efficacy to face with the stress situation as a challenge rather than as a threat (Giacobbi, Tuccitto & Frye, 2007). In addition, trait emotional intelligence has its significant predict the multiple choice question score in a positive manner when the age and gender was controlled. The students who have high scale on PID- deliberation, who always depend on a faint positive affect



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