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Enlightenment Case

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1. What other names is often used when referring to the Enlightenment?

Age of Reason

2. What was Sir Issac Newton's role in the Enlightenment?

Sir Isaac Newton and other scientists had identified natural laws to explain the workings of the universe.

3. What changes did they encourage for social progress?

Enlightenment philosophers sought social progress by encouraging religious tolerance, education reforms, and prison reforms.

4. What long-standing political belief did Enlightenment thinkers question?

As they analyzed existing systems of government, philosophers questioned the belief that monarchs ruled by divine right. The Enlightenment thinkers proposed that all governments, including monarchies, should result from a contract between the ruler and the people.

Part Two

5. What important idea did John Locke write about in the Two Treatises of Government?

In 1690, Locke wrote Two Treatises of Government. In it, he argued that government should protect people's natural rights to life, liberty, and property. Locke stressed that rulers derived their authority from a contract with the people. He also argued that people had the right to overthrow an unjust government.

6. What was Voltaire's role in the Enlightenment Era?

He wrote plays, novels, and essays attacking slavery, religious intolerance, and other social and political injustices. Voltaire was a passionate advocate for freedom of speech. Many of his writings offended the French royalty and the Catholic Church.

Part Three

7. What important political idea did Montesquieu introduce?

Montesquieu admired England's limited monarchy because it had a constitution that divided power between the king and parliament. He advocated dividing government into three independent branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial.

8. How did Jean-Jacque Rousseau ideas differ from other Enlightenment philosophers?

Unlike Voltaire and Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not an aristocrat. Because of his humble birth, he considered himself an outcast among the Enlightenment philosophers. Rousseau often criticized what he saw as the Enlightenment's excessive reliance on reason. He argued that people should trust their instincts and emotions.

Part Four

9. Explain



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