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Evaluating the Link Between Anti-Social Personality Disorder and Sex offence

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Evaluating the Link Between Anti-Social Personality Disorder and Sex Offence

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Introduction

        Personality disorders are profoundly imbibed and maladaptive patterns of behavior, usually of a predetermined kind, that start to become prominent during pre-adulthood, bringing about long term challenges in forming and maintaining personal relations as well as functioning normally in the society. As such, they are psychological conditions that influence how a person perceives, feels, thinks, and identifies with others (National Health Service, United Kingdom Government, 2015).

        A key issue in disorders such as antisocial personality disorder is sexual impulsivity (Sansone, & Sansone, 2011). Violent sexual behavior is a serious societal issue. Review studies indicate that many sexual aggressors have underlying psychiatric problems (Valença, Nascimento, & Nardi, 2013). The objective of this essay is to report on the relationship between antisocial personality disorder and sexual offenses. The essay will outline the personality traits and clusters of sexual offenders with antisocial personality disorder as well as review the five-factor model of personality.

Sexual Offending and Antisocial Personality

Personality Disorders According to DSM-5

        The DSM-5 criteria diagnoses personality disorders into three clusters, A, B and C according to disorders that show as similar pattern (Janus, & Szulc, 2016).

        Cluster A

Cluster A features the odd and eccentric; individuals are socially awkward and withdrawn, characterized by suspicion and mistrust and always viewing other people as malevolent. The disorders that feature here are Schizoid, Schizotypal and Paranoid. Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) is characterized by social isolation and restrained emotional expression. SPD individuals are not fond of close and intimate relations. They prefer isolated activities and get little gratification from daily life, occupying themselves with mechanical and abstruse activities that take little human collaboration. People describe them as loners, cold, and aloof. They usually appear to be socially incompetent due to their seemingly oblivion towards social subtlety and norms. Their restricted range of emotions makes them appear detached and dull as they hardly respond to gestures. Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) is characterized by interpersonal inhibitions and social constrains. SPD individuals experience intense unpleasantness with social interaction and environments. They have very low capacity for intimate relations. They often experience cognitive distortions such as imagining seeing light or objects that do not exist. They exhibit strange, superstitious and eccentric behaviors, fantasies and beliefs such as believing that they have the power to read people’s minds or that someone could steal their own thoughts. SPD is prevalent in families with history in schizophrenia, a psychotic mental condition. Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD) is constituted by patterns of distrust and suspicion of other people. PPD individuals are under the impression that people are out to cause them harm, humiliate or take advantage of them. As such, they go a long way to ensure they are well protected and may avoid people. They are characterized by pathological jealousy, long running grudges and belligerence. They are known to attack preemptively when they suspect other people bear them harm. They exhibit distorted perceptions, misjudging innocuous situations to be malicious. This leads them to avoid developing intimate relations.  

Cluster B

Cluster B features the Dramatic, Erratic and Emotional; individuals are cannot control their impulses and emotions, characterized by disregard and violation of other people’s rights. the disorders featured here are Borderline, Narcissistic, Histrionic and Antisocial. Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) describes individuals who have intense and unstable emotions. Their moods shift very quickly and they are unable to calm themselves when they get agitated. They often experience anger outbursts and are driven by impulse that may lead them to behaviors such as, overspending, risky sexual engagements, binge eating, substance abuse, and even self-harm. BPD individuals oversimplify situations and have a polarized view of the world. They do not have a range of emotions, oscillating only between the extreme ends. They are viewed as unstable individuals and may engage in rash decisions such as constantly switching careers, dwelling places, major goals, and relationships. They view everything as black-and-white, causing them to misrepresent the actions of other people. BPD individuals may suffer from self-destructive tendencies due to their emotional dysregulation and distorted thoughts. Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) is characterized by a powerful sense of self-worth and self-entitlement. Individuals suffering from NPD believe that they deserve the of everything. They are deluded, believing that they possess unique talents and unusual powers. They assume that they are better than others with regards to intelligence and physical attractiveness. This causes them to be disrespectful and condescending to other people. NPD individuals experience fantasies of superiority and limitless power, success, intelligence, and/or beauty. They become unconcerned with daily life and/or realizing their goals. Such behavior always puts them in the collision path with people around them. NPD individuals become overwhelmed when they recognize that they are normal and average just like other people. Due to their personalities, NPD individuals only have aesthetic relationships riddled with strife and lacking intimacy. Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) is characterized by excessive emotions and pursuit of attention. HPD individuals are often dramatic and are troubled when in situations where they are not the main point of focus. They are flirtatious and flamboyant, preferring to exaggerate expressions and manner of dressing. People describe them as very shallow and disingenuous. They appear fickle in nature, a factor that interferes with their personal relations their others. Such individuals are suggestible and easily swayed. Antisocial Personality Disorder (sociopathy) is one characterized by impulsive and irresponsible behavior that is often criminal in nature. An individual with this condition exhibits recklessness and neglect, exploitative, bold, egotistical, and manipulative behavior, and is generally remorseless due to impaired empathy. The condition varies in severity, the worst of which is referred to psychopathy, where constantly commits serious criminal offences (Berger, Zieve, Ogilvie, & A.D.A.M. Inc., 2016). Although the exact causes are unknown, it is believed that genetics play a key role, alongside several other contributing factors such as child abuse, neglect and alcoholic, harsh, unavailable and/or antisocial parents (National Health Service, United Kingdom Government, 2015). Antisocial Personality Disorder manifests through several signs and symptoms such as inability to control anger, disregard for responsibly or social norms, lack of concern, guilt or remorse, adolescent truancy and delinquency, neglect for safety, and manipulation and exploitation of other people. Such individuals may suffer from depression and substance abuse. ASPD individuals hardly take responsibility for their actions, preferring to deflect blame to the victims for motivating or even deserving of their actions.

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