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External and Internal Factors Team Paper Mgt330

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In 1976 two college dropouts founded Apple Computer Inc. These two men were none other than Steve Wozniak (26 at the time) and Steve Jobs (21 at the time). "Apple Computer, Inc. is largely responsible for the enormous growth of the personal computer industry in the 20th century. The introduction of the Macintosh line of personal computers in 1984 established the company as an innovator in industrial design whose products became renowned for their intuitive ease of use. Though battered by bad decision-making during the 1990s, Apple continues to exude the same enviable characteristics in the 21st century that catapulted the company toward fame during the 1980s. The company designs, manufactures, and markets personal computers, software, and peripherals, concentrating on lower-cost, uniquely designed computers such as iMAC and Power Macintosh models." ("International Directory of Company Histories" 2001)

Impact of Factors on Four Functions of Management

The four functions of management are impacted by many external and internal factors such as globalization, technology, innovation, diversity, and ethics. These external and internal factors play a large role in the four functions of management. Planning is impacted by the management's ability to expand worldwide. Organizing is also impacted by external factors that aid in determining the number of staff members and amount of resources required to complete a task.

The last function of management, which is controlling is impacted by external and internal factors that aid in monitoring performance of the goals. The monitoring process enables an organization to make changes to ensure quality products and services (Bateman & Snell, 2009). For example, an organization may use outside agencies or in-house staff to analyze the outcomes of various programs or products to ensure the effectiveness and allocate a plan of action to improve future actions (Bateman & Snell, 2009).

The following chart lists the cycle of the four functions of management; however, depending on the organization or company these functions may be processed simultaneously to maximize the effectiveness of the organization.

Table 1. The Four Functions of Management

Impact of Globalization

With all of the innovation, we cannot forget about globalization for Apple Inc. Not only is Apple Inc. products' selling overseas, Apple Inc. is also opening new stores in such places as London and Shanghai. Before the iPhone was introduced, Apple Inc. was having a difficult time with globalization. Not including Apple stores, 58% of the revenue was from overseas (Kane & Rohwedder, June). It is estimated that 55% of iPhone sales are made outside the U.S.

"France, Germany, the U.K. and Japan are some of the company's fastest growing markets. According to Shaw Wu, In the U.S., the only way to get a substantial amount of subscribers is through another carrier" (Kane & Rohwedder, June). As you can see by the graph below, there is a large demand for iPhones outside the Unites States.

(Kane & Rohwedder, June)

Other Apple Inc. products are marketed overseas as well. The iPad is selling internationally as well as the iPhone. It is believed that around 55% of iPad and iPhone sales are expected to be international sales.

Impact of Technology

As everyone is aware, technology is continually changing and directly impacts the four functions of management. "Since technology is adapted to serve the functions of management, the functions of technology can be described in the same terms: communication (or leading), planning, monitoring, and control" (Ingram, n.d.). The author continues in his article to describe how technology directly impacts the functions of management.

Technology assists managers in planning by providing the resources they need quickly, efficiently, and effectively. Many managers use computers, Internet, intranet, telephones, and other technological devices to gather information they need during the planning function.

Organizing is a very important function of management, and because of technology managers are more efficient. Computers and Smart Phones have greatly streamlined the organization process. Managers can gather all information and data needed to manage their department, organizing it the best way to effectively use that information, allowing more time for other functions.

When considering managers leading, and leading being one of the functions of management, technology has greatly improved timely communication. For example, managers use e-mail, text messages, instant messaging, telephones, and even teleconferencing. This allows managers more flexibility when leading their employees.

Controlling is another function of management that benefits from technology. For example, information gathered from production can easily be put into any type of report for that manager. Computer software streamlines the process for managers to review those reports and quickly make changes that directly impact the organizations success. Another factor that impacts the functions of management is innovation.

Impact of innovation

In 1977, the first successful personal computer was developed called the Apple II (Potter, Oct.). It was not the first personal computer made, but this one had its own case, a monitor, and fewer cables. Innovation was the name of the game.

The next innovative idea came in 1981 with the Apple III; it was supposed to be bigger and better. It was designed to be a business computer, but with hardware problems and IBM coming into the picture, Apple started losing money.

In 1985, when Steve Jobs was just 30 years-old, he was fired by his own company and with him leaving the company did not fair very well. Eventually Steve Jobs returned to Apple Computer as the CEO. During this time there were several innovations, but nothing very exciting that is until in 1998 the iMac was introduced just in time to save the company. The iMac was the first low-priced personal computer without a floppy disk (Zakomurnaya, Oct.).

In 2001 came the iPod, and it was a hit with consumers. People were



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