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History Lecture Notes

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Lecture 1

Part 2

  • Entrepot
  • A port, city, or other centre to which goods are brought for import and export, and for collection and distribution
  • Port cities were in the eastern cost line allowed connection to the European economics (ex. Florida, Virginia, New York, Quebec, and etc.)
  • Today these cities are dominant entrepot cities
  • What was the only major European entrepot established north of Mexico that did not become a major metropolitan centre?
  • Louisbourg, Nova scotia (important in the 1750s)
  • Important of its role in the French empire in that period, role: important military control point
  • How was the French empire structure? Quebec to France --- sailing ships. Well then how did Louisbourg fit into this system? An important port and was also, important centre for the processing of dried fish around that area. Fish was a significant trade commodity in the 18th century.
  • Problem for Quebec: Saint Laurent river was frozen for up to 6 months (Nov through april)
  • Louisbroug was better situated then Quebec in the transportation system of entrepot on the 18th century.
  • Then why did this not continue? Southern part of the altantic cost (north America) was part of the british empire. The trade between French and empire was actively discouraged, these empires fought in the 18th century to secure raw materials and etc. So their trading outputs were secured by the construction of massive walls and fortifications. Due to the lack of hills or anything in louisbourg, the defense of war was to close the growing city within the defense of walls.
  • Louisbourg is not a museum now. What happened? It somehow lost its potential as a key entrepot.
  • However, british established their own entrepot in Halifax in 1749.
  • Well defeated fort, that can defense the harbour and cities from military threat, commercial and residential part of the settlement was located outside of the main location of the entrepot.
  • These two cities represented the frontier, located 320 km apart.
  • British cut the French from their empire, and Quebec fell to the british in the 1752, and montreal was totally isolated in 1760. Peace treaty that controlled the war in 1763, it gave all its power to the british in both the entrepot.
  • Due to this, british had no need for two entrepot, Halifax was quiet capable of handing the trading in the region. Loiusbroug lost its military and economic functions.
  • Importance of the Past
  • Ex. Shanghai, the growth of this city now illustrates the importance of its urban path.
  • Two centres; The bund and Pudong, because of the river crossing.
  • The bund was developed as the commercial centre of old Shanghai in European places
  • The western commercial interest was expelled from the bund and Shanghai represented this change using Pudong.
  • Shanghai was the same economic basic function as it had a century ago
  • A gateway to China, trade, financial centre, and a different group of capitalists   some things never change.
  • Cities as Symbols
  • Ex. Brasilia, Brazil (south America)
  • Only 57 years old, created in 1959
  • The idea has been considered since the early 19th century
  • A capital city more control to the vast country; away from the more heavily developed and populated coast
  • Began in 1956, the capital was transferred to new city in 1960.
  • Why was this project undertaken? Economic development, feat of coastal invasion, to enhance national unity – a national project that everyone could get behind – created to improve the standard of living
  • Brasilia  “modern” or “modernist” or “international style” – architecture style.
  • Brasilia road network – shaped like an aeroplane, (jet age).

Part 2

  • Chicago and US. In 19th century
  • “Shock city”  ex. Shanghai, rapid and radical change and economically. Rapid population growth, social structure, and standard of living. Growth!
  • Possible and Achievable.
  • Immense transformation  Chicago  high achievement  unbridled capitalism
  • Great and convenient route as it was located in the lake Michigan. Raise building because of floods, the plan was achieved in 2 decades
  • Sewage river, sick people. Result: cleaner water, and safe drinking water. Also a great change to trade in and out.
  • Most buildings were not built to last forever, it was a temporary thing
  • Traffic, busy, and packed area was normal in a shock city in Chicago. Chicago = food processing, major export of this city.
  • 1890, the white city the Colombia exposition   A great Achievement  clean, organized, white, and safe.
  • Although the buildings look big, they weren’t built to last, they were built to look impressive at that time.
  • Demonstrated that open spaces are pleasantly. Coordination and planning was a new concept
  • Ex. Toronto. Yonge street. Also, Front street
  • Union Station (1940s), primary gateway to city, railway was the primary way to travel.

Homework: how did “Front Street” and “The Esplanade” got their names?  

Answer: Front street situated on the waterfront, and this was extremely important for the best means of transportation. Esplanade, a long, open, level area along which people may walk for pleasure”. Where are they situated? They are far removed from the harbour. Railway mileage in Canada wait through these roads, the principle cities. Toronto was the most prosperous city in the west. The great western railroad (Hamilton, Niagara, south Toronto in 1853, at last, the 1856, grand trunk railroad (Toronto to montreal). 3 railroad: 1853, 1855, 1855. Toronto grew so fast because of this means of transportation. Early 20th century, dredge the luxury area in order to provide for harbour facility.

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