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History Outline

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APUSH Outline

Chapter 5:

Structure of Colonial Society

- Population Growth- fast rate

- Demographics- 60% under 21

- Personal Prosperity- colonists doing well with personal income

- Regional Prosperity- doing well (especially south, NE temporarily behind)

King George III- wants more control over government policies in colonies, reason for rebellion and unification of colonies

Whigs- English politicians, traditionally made government policy

Parliamentary Sovereignty- Parliament has complete authority in regards to England and British Empire

No Taxation without Representation: American Perspective- Representation in Parliament so that colonists have a say in matters- Parliament denies

Virtual Representation- Parliament says that they "represent" colonists already, so they don't need a representative I government, since Parliament knows what is best for them

John Locke- English writer (1600s) influence "people possess natural, inalienable, and God-given rights" life, liberty and property

John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon- English writers, believed power was dangerous since it destroyed liberty, but could be subdued by virtue

Pontiac's Rebellion- Indian uprising after Seven Years War, Midwest, after being defeated by Pontiac British get revenge and claims the Midwest

Patrick Henry- "Give me liberty or give me death", hates Constitution (government, authority, power), protests Stamp Act with Virginia Resolves, unites all classes

Stamp Act Congress- representatives from all colonies draft a petition against the stamp act and basically all other taxes without representation (inter-colonial- colonies come together)

Fueling the Crisis

- Charles Townshed Revenue Acts- passes laws to get revenue for England (not in Parliament, Chancellor of Exchequer- financial guy for English government), doesn't feel bad for colonies

"Grab-bag on taxes for Everything"

Boston Massacre- Propaganda event for colonists, soldiers nervous and outnumbered, first shot fired, several follow, five Americans died

Last Days of Imperial Rule

- Customs officials- appointed to collect taxes (seized money, forceful)

- Committee of correspondence- started by Samuel Adams, groups of people in Massachusetts who formed up to petition British government, popular form of pretest

Boston Tea Party- Popular protest over Tea Act (support British tea companies) extremists dressed as Mohawk Indians and dumped British tea into Boston Harbor

Coercive Acts (Intolerable) - punished Americans for Boston Tea Party, 1.) Fully closed Boston port until East India Company was compensated 2.) Restructured Massachusetts government to that the upper house had appointed officials instead of elected ones, limited legal town meeting to one a year 3.) Allowed arrested British officials to be transported to England for trial, where they would unlikely be convicted 4.) Authorized British army to quarter troops wherever needed

Thomas Gage- British military commander in the colonies

First Continental Congress- Leaders of future revolution get together, strangers, "preparing for war"

Nonimportation- Boycott of British imports (goods)

Shots Heard Around the World

- Lexington and Concord- 1775, American victory, British were outnumbered

- Minutemen- "unofficial militia" not trained

Second Continental Congress- American war-time government, appointed military leaders, funded military (borrowed), constantly moving

Thomas Paine- wrote Common Sense, "America should separate from Britain"

Thomas Jefferson- wrote The Declaration of Independence

Three Elements that Neutralized Superior British Power- 1.) Sending troops on the long voyage to and from England (4 weeks, bad communication) 2.) America was a big territory, therefore hard to conquer 3.) British underestimated America's commitment to the war

George Washington- highly supported, Commander of Continental Army

Loyalists- American citizens that were still loyal to Britain

Slaves and the Revolutionary War- freed slaves fought for Americans, slaves in south sided with Britain

General William Howe- British commander replaces Thomas Gage

French Alliance

- Battle of Saratoga- New York State, American victory, this proved to the French that America was in the fight

- Ben Franklin- instrumental in getting French to join

Battle of Yorktown- American victory ends war, (Lord Cornwallis- losing British General)

Loyalist Dilemma- their side lost the war so they didn't know where they should go

Chapter 6:

Republicanism- way of life, commitment to liberty



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