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Hofstede Cultural Dimension

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The six dimensions of Hofstede        

Power Distance Index (PDI)        

Individualism Versus Collectivism (IDV)        

Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)        

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)        

Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO)        

Indulgence versus Restraint (IND)        

Cultural differences between UK and Russia        

Power Distance        



Uncertainty Avoidance        

Long Term Orientation        


Strengths and weaknesses of Hofstede model        



Recommendations to an MNC internationalizing from UK to Russia in terms of intercultural management.        

Five dimensions of Hofstede        

Business Greetings        

Meetings and Negotiations        

Russian Language        




Professor Geert Hofstede is a social psychologist and anthropologist. He conducted one of the most inclusive studies of how values in the work environment are impacted by culture. During his studies about cross-cultural, he recognized four primary dimensions, later added five and six, which influence the way human thinking, associations, organizations and institutions in unsurprising ways. These six dimensions, Hofstede identified are Power Distance (PD), Individualism/Collectivism (IDV), Uncertainty Avoidance (UA), Masculinity/Femininity (MAS), Long-term Orientation (LTO) and Indulgence versus Restraint.

The six dimensions of Hofstede

Power Distance Index (PDI)

Hofstede’s Power Distance Index measures the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally (, 2015).

The main issue here is the way a society manages inequalities amongst individuals. This dimension does not quantify the level of Power Distribution among people in a culture, but instead examine how individuals feel about it.

People in societies showing a large level of Power Distance acknowledge a hierarchical order in which everyone has a place and which requires no further justification. Low power-distance scores mean that a culture expects and accepts that power relations are democratic and members are viewed as equals (, 2015). In societies where there is low Power Distance, people endeavor to even out or balance the distribution of power as well as they demand justification for inequalities of power.

Individualism Versus Collectivism (IDV)

Individualism on the one side versus its opposite, Collectivism, as a societal, not an individual characteristic, is the degree to which people in a society are integrated into groups (, 2015).

A high IDV score demonstrates that the society is individualistic and have loose connections between individuals. In societies with a high IDV score there is an absence of interpersonal connection, and small sharing of obligation beyond family Individualism represents a preference for a loose tie cultural framework, in which the ties among individuals are loose, where individuals are expected to take care of just her/himself and her/his immediate family.

Its inverse, in countries with a low IDV score is considered as collectivism. On the collective side, we find cultures where individuals can rely on their relatives or members from a specific in-group to take care of them in return for unquestioning loyalty. Individuals from birth onwards are incorporated into strong group cohesion, frequently extended families with aunts, uncles and grandparents that keep protecting them in return for unquestioning loyalty.

Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS)

This alludes to how much a society holds with, and values, traditional men and women roles.

Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of emotional roles between the genders which is another fundamental issue for any society to which a range of solutions are found (, 2015).

Masculinity stands for a preference in society for achievement, assertiveness, heroism and material rewards for success. High MAS scores are found in societies where men are relied upon to be "tough," to be the provider and assertive as well. Societies with high masculinity scale usually have more prominent differences among genders and are more competitive and ambitious.

Its inverse, on the femininity side of this dimension represents a preference for modesty, caring for the weak, cooperation, and quality of life. societies with Low MAS scores have lesser differences among genders and place a great value on relationship building. It can be seen both men and women working together equally in numerous profession where, Men are permitted to be sensitive and ladies can work hard for to achieve professional success.

Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI)

Uncertainty avoidance deals with a society's tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity (, 2015).



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