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John Locke Case

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John Locke was the most influential philosophers of the modern period. A 17th century Englishman who redefined the nature of government. Locke wrote several papers relating to money, interest and trade. He devoted much of his time to writing on philosophy and political thought. Locke's most well known works included Two Treatises and The Limits of human understanding. Locke's most important work of political philosophy was the Two Treatises on government; he suggested that the human mind was tabula rasa (blank slate) which acquired knowledge from our senses only. Locked argued the theory of property is one of the most significant components of the Treatise he explains that property consists of a man's life and his possessions. In a state of nature, a man has the right to maintain and order his property as he sees fit sadly, he also has to contend with the presence of other men and the lack of any established laws to protect himself and his possessions. Locke believed in an existence in a free and equal society would bring out the best in people, as long as their property was protected and they lived in a state of reason. Locke contended that people voluntarily came together as one to form governments for the protection of their basic rights and it was the approval of the people that gave authority to a government. Locke believed that God created all men and were equal to one another and they would have the same advantages and privileges as all other men and should seek to protect the lives of others if they want their own preserved. Locke states, "In races of mankind and families of the world, there remains not to one above another, the least pretence to be the eldest house" (Locke, Treatise, 7). Equality is the driving force of Locke's political theory because it is the basis for our consensual involvement in society, importantly; he establishes general equality of all. John Locke encouraged governmental checks and balances. He also viewed political revolution as not only a right but also in some circumstances as a duty. In the United States, those ideas helped inspire and form the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States. Absolutism existed across Europe, but largely in the west in states such as Spain, Prussia and Austria. During the Enlightenment several 'absolute' monarchs - such as Frederick I of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Habsburg Austrian leaders - attempted to introduce Enlightenment inspired reforms while still firmly controlling their nations. The French monarchy abused the human's natural rights. People did not have freedom and that is why they wanted to be liberated from the French monarchy. John Locke personally criticized monarchy and social inequality. He said that all humans are the same and should be equal.

Adam Smith was a Scottish philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment .Smith is the author of An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nation,

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