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Kinetics and Color Analysis

Essay by   •  May 21, 2012  •  Essay  •  577 Words (3 Pages)  •  1,284 Views

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Kinetics

There are several conditions that affect the rate of a chemical reaction. The reactant concentration and the temperature are directly related to the initial rate. The graph on the effect of temperature on rate of chloromethane solvolysis shows that at higher temperatures, the chloromethane decreases faster, so rate increased. The reactant concentration and the temperature do not affect the overall reaction order. The reaction order is determined experimentally. The reactant concentration does not affect the rate constant. The rate constant depends on temperature. The higher the temperature, the higher the rate constant.

The instantaneous rate of a reaction can be determined from a concentration of product versus time graph. For a certain time, extend a tangent line to the graph. One can calculate the slope, which is the instantaneous rate. Graphs can also indicate the reaction order of the reaction. If the graph of concentration reaction versus time is linear, the reactant is zero order. If the graph of natural log concentration versus time is linear, the reactant is first order. If the graph of one divided by reactant concentration versus time is linear, the reactant is second order. For example, one divided by the concentration of ozone versus time for varying ozone is linear, which implies that it is second order. A graph can also help determine the rate constant. By using graphs to find the other terms in rate law, one can divide by the terms to find K. The rate constant varies with a catalyst and temperature, but not by reactant concentration.

With a rate law, one can see how fast reaction will occur.

Colors

Every object that a person perceives with his eyes is seen as a color. When a person sees an object, the person is observing electromagnetic waves of visible light that is striking the person's eyes. Wavelengths between 400 and 750 nanometers make up the visible region. The colors from largest wavelength to shortest are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. White light is seen when all of the colors from the visible spectrum are reflected from an object. The color wheel is a tool that can show which colors are being absorbed by an object. If an object is a certain color, that means it is absorbing the color across from it on the color wheel(complementary color) and that most or all of the other colors are being transmitted. A person can only see light that is transmitted or reflected by an object, but not the absorbed light.

Objects appear the color in which they are because of the colors being absorbed and transmitted by the object. For example, a beam of blue monochromatic light is reflecting blue light. This light strikes the eyes of a person, so blue is the color seen. From the color wheel, it can be inferred that the object is absorbing orange light. A shirt that is

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