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Kyoto Protocol - an International Treaty

Essay by   •  May 22, 2018  •  Research Paper  •  1,581 Words (7 Pages)  •  465 Views

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Adapted in Kyoto, Japan on December 11, 1997, the Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It commits state parties to to reduce green-house gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that global warming is occurring and it is extremely likely that human-made carbon dioxide emissions have predominantly caused it. 

The aforesaid protocol also mandated that 37 industrialised nations plus the European Community cut their green-house gas emissions. Prior with this, developing nations were also asked to voluntarily comply. 

The following table lists the 192 countries involved in the Kyoto Protocol:

Participant

Signature

Ratification
Acceptance (A)
Accession (a)
Approval (AA)

Entry into force

 AFGHANISTAN

25 March 2013 a

23 June 2013

ALBANIA

  1 Apr 2005 a

30 Jun 2005

ALGERIA

16 Feb 2005 a

17 May 2005

ANGOLA

  8 May 2007 a

  6 Aug 2007

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

16 Mar 1998

  3 Nov 1998

16 Feb 2005

ARGENTINA

16 Mar 1998

28 Sep 2001

16 Feb 2005

ARMENIA

25 Apr 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

AUSTRALIA*

29 Apr 1998

12 Dec 2007

11 Mar 2008

AUSTRIA*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

AZERBAIJAN

28 Sep 2000 a

16 Feb 2005

BAHAMAS

  9 Apr 1999 a

16 Feb 2005

BAHRAIN

31 Jan 2006 a

  1 May 2006

BANGLADESH

22 Oct 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

BARBADOS

  7 Aug 2000 a

16 Feb 2005

BELARUS*

26 Aug 2005 a

24 Nov 2005

BELGIUM*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

BELIZE

26 Sep 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

BENIN

25 Feb 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

BHUTAN

26 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

BOLIVIA

9 Jul 1998

30 Nov 1999

16 Feb 2005

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

16 Apr 2007 a

15 Jul 2007

BOTSWANA

  8 Aug 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

BRAZIL

29 Apr 1998

23 Aug 2002

16 Feb 2005

BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

20 Aug 2009 a

18 Nov 2009

BULGARIA*

18 Sep 1998

15 Aug 2002

16 Feb 2005

BURKINA FASO

31 Mar 2005 a

29 Jun 2005

BURUNDI

18 Oct 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

CABO VERDE

 

10 Feb 2006 a

11 May 2006 

CAMBODIA

22 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

CAMEROON

28 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

CANADA*

[29 Apr 1998]

[17 Dec 2002]

16 Feb 2005

[15 Dec 2012 w]

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

18 Mar 2008 a

16 Jun 2008

CHAD

18 Aug 2009 a

16 Nov 2009

CHILE

17 Jun 1998

26 Aug 2002

16 Feb 2005

CHINA

29 May 1998

30 Aug 2002 AA (2)

16 Feb 2005

COLOMBIA

30 Nov 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

COMOROS

10 Apr 2008 a

  9 Jul 2008

CONGO

12 Feb 2007 a

13 May 2007

COOK ISLANDS

16 Sep 1998

27 Aug 2001

16 Feb 2005

COSTA RICA

27 Apr 1998

  9 Aug 2002

16 Feb 2005

COTE D'IVOIRE

23 Apr 2007 a

22 Jul 2007

CROATIA*

11 Mar 1999

30 May 2007

28 Aug 2007

CUBA

15 Mar 1999

30 Apr 2002

16 Feb 2005

CYPRUS

16 Jul 1999 a

16 Feb 2005

CZECH REPUBLIC*

23 Nov 1998

15 Nov 2001 AA

16 Feb 2005

DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA

27 Apr 2005 a

26 Jul 2005

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

23 Mar 2005 a

21 Jun 2005

DENMARK*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002 (3)

16 Feb 2005

DJIBOUTI

12 Mar 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

DOMINICA

25 Jan 2005 a

25 Apr 2005

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

12 Feb 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

ECUADOR

15 Jan 1999

13 Jan 2000

16 Feb 2005

EGYPT

15 Mar 1999

12 Jan 2005

12 Apr 2005

EL SALVADOR

8 Jun 1998

30 Nov 1998

16 Feb 2005

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

16 Aug 2000 a

16 Feb 2005

ERITREA

28 Jul 2005 a

26 Oct 2005

ESTONIA*

3 Dec 1998

14 Oct 2002

16 Feb 2005

ETHIOPIA

14 Apr 2005 a

13 Jul 2005

EUROPEAN UNION*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002 AA

16 Feb 2005

FIJI

17 Sep 1998         

17 Sep 1998

16 Feb 2005

FINLAND*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

FRANCE*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002 AA

16 Feb 2005

GABON

12 Dec 2006 a

12 Mar 2007

GAMBIA

  1 Jun 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

GEORGIA

16 Jun 1999 a

16 Feb 2005

GERMANY*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

GHANA

30 May 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

GREECE*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

GRENADA

  6 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

GUATEMALA

10 Jul 1998

  5 Oct 1999

16 Feb 2005

GUINEA

  7 Sep 2000 a

16 Feb 2005

GUINEA-BISSAU

18 Nov 2005 a

16 Feb 2005

GUYANA

  5 Aug 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

HAITI

  6 Jul 2005 a

  4 Oct 2005

HONDURAS

25 Feb 1999

19 Jul 2000

16 Feb 2005

HUNGARY*

21 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

ICELAND*

23 May 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

INDIA

26 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

INDONESIA

13 Jul 1998

  3 Dec 2004

  3 Mar 2005

IRAN (ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF)

22 Aug 2005 a

20 Nov 2005

IRAQ

28 Jul 2009 a

26 Oct 2009

IRELAND*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

ISRAEL

16 Dec 1998

15 Mar 2004

16 Feb 2005

ITALY*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

JAMAICA

28 Jun 1999 a

16 Feb 2005

JAPAN*

28 Apr 1998

  4 Jun 2002 A

16 Feb 2005

JORDAN

17 Jan 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

KAZAKHSTAN**

12 Mar 1999

19 Jun 2009

17 Sep 2009

KENYA

25 Feb 2005 a

26 May 2005

KIRIBATI

  7 Sep 2000 a

16 Feb 2005

KUWAIT

11 Mar 2005 a

  9 Jun 2005

KYRGYZSTAN

13 May 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

LAO PEOPLE'S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

  6 Feb 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

LATVIA*

14 Dec 1998

  5 Jul 2002

16 Feb 2005

LEBANON

13 Nov 2006 a

11 Feb 2007

LESOTHO

  6 Sep 2000 a

16 Feb 2005

LIBERIA

  5 Nov 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

LIBYA

24 Aug 2006 a

22 Nov 2006

LIECHTENSTEIN*

29 Jun 1998

  3 Dec 2004

  3 Mar 2005

LITHUANIA*

21 Sep 1998

  3 Jan 2003

16 Feb 2005

LUXEMBOURG*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

MADAGASCAR

24 Sep 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

MALAWI

26 Oct 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

MALAYSIA

12 Mar 1999

  4 Sep 2002

16 Feb 2005

MALDIVES

16 Mar 1998

30 Dec 1998

16 Feb 2005

MALI

27 Jan 1999

28 Mar 2002

16 Feb 2005

MALTA*

17 Apr 1998

11 Nov 2001

16 Feb 2005

MARSHALL ISLANDS

17 Mar 1998

11 Aug 2003

16 Feb 2005

MAURITANIA

22 Jul 2005 a

20 Oct 2005

MAURITIUS

  9 May 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

MEXICO

  9 Jun 1998

  7 Sep 2000

16 Feb 2005

MICRONESIA (FEDERATED STATES OF)

17 Mar 1998

21 Jun 1999

16 Feb 2005

MONACO*

29 Apr 1998

27 Feb 2006

28 May 2006

MONGOLIA

15 Dec 1999 a

16 Feb 2005

MONTENEGRO

  4 Jun 2007 a

  2 Sep 2007

MOROCCO

25 Jan 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

MOZAMBIQUE

18 Jan 2005 a

18 Apr 2005

MYANMAR

13 Aug 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

NAMIBIA

  4 Sep 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

NAURU

16 Aug 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

NEPAL

16 Sep 2005 a

15 Dec 2005

NETHERLANDS*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002 A (4)

16 Feb 2005

NEW ZEALAND*

22 May 1998

19 Dec 2002 (5)

16 Feb 2005

NICARAGUA

  7 Jul 1998

18 Nov 1999

16 Feb 2005

NIGER

23 Oct 1998

30 Sep 2004

16 Feb 2005

NIGERIA

10 Dec 2004 a

10 Mar 2005

NIUE

  8 Dec 1998

  6 May 1999

16 Feb 2005

NORWAY*

29 Apr 1998

30 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

OMAN

19 Jan 2005 a

19 Apr 2005

PAKISTAN

11 Jan 2005 a

11 Apr 2005

PALAU

10 Dec 1999 a

16 Feb 2005

PANAMA

  8 Jun 1998

  5 Mar 1999

16 Feb 2005

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

  2 Mar 1999

28 Mar 2002

16 Feb 2005

PARAGUAY

25 Aug 1998

27 Aug 1999

16 Feb 2005

PERU

13 Nov 1998

12 Sep 2002

16 Feb 2005

PHILIPPINES

15 Apr 1998

20 Nov 2003

16 Feb 2005

POLAND*

15 Jul 1998

13 Dec 2002

16 Feb 2005

PORTUGAL*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002 AA

16 Feb 2005

QATAR

11 Jan 2005 a

11 Apr 2005

REPUBLIC OF KOREA

25 Sep 1998

  8 Nov 2002

16 Feb 2005

REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

22 Apr 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

ROMANIA*

  5 Jan 1999

19 Mar 2001

16 Feb 2005

RUSSIAN FEDERATION*

11 Mar 1999

18 Nov 2004

16 Feb 2005

RWANDA

22 Jul 2004 a

16 Feb 2005

SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS

  8 Apr 2008 a

  7 Jul 2008

SAINT LUCIA

16 Mar 1998

20 Aug 2003

16 Feb 2005

SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

19 Mar 1998

31 Dec 2004

31 Mar 2005

SAMOA

16 Mar 1998

27 Nov 2000

16 Feb 2005

SAN MARINO

28 April 2010

27 Jul
2010

SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

25 Apr 2008 a

23 Jun 2008

SAUDI ARABIA

31 Jan 2005 a

  1 May 2005

SENEGAL

20 Jul 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

SERBIA

19 Oct 2007 a

17 Jan 2008

SEYCHELLES

20 Mar 1998

22 Jul 2002

16 Feb 2005

SIERRA LEONE

10 Nov 2006 a

8 Feb 2007

SINGAPORE

12 Apr 2006 a

11 Jul 2006

SLOVAKIA*

26 Feb 1999

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

SLOVENIA*

21 Oct 1998

  2 Aug 2002

16 Feb 2005

SOLOMON ISLANDS

29 Sep 1998

13 Mar 2003

16 Feb 2005

SOMALIA

26 July 2010

24 Oct
2010

SOUTH AFRICA

31 Jul 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

SPAIN*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

SRI LANKA

  3 Sep 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

SUDAN

  2 Nov 2004 a

16 Feb 2005

SURINAME

25 Sep 2006 a

24 Dec 2006

SWAZILAND

13 Jan 2006 a

13 Apr 2006

SWEDEN*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002

16 Feb 2005

SWITZERLAND*

16 Mar 1998

  9 Jul 2003

16 Feb 2005

SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC

27 Jan 2006 a

27 Apr 2006

TAJIKISTAN

29 Dec 2008 a

29 Mar 2009

THAILAND

  2 Feb 1999

28 Aug 2002

16 Feb 2005

THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

18 Nov 2004 a

16 Feb 2005

TIMOR-LESTE

14 Oct 2008 a

12 Jan 2009

TOGO

  2 Jul 2004 a

16 Feb 2005

TONGA

14 Jan 2008 a

13 Apr 2008

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

  7 Jan 1999

28 Jan 1999

16 Feb 2005

TUNISIA

22 Jan 2003 a

16 Feb 2005

TURKEY*

28 May 2009 a

26 Aug 2009

TURKMENISTAN

28 Sep 1998

11 Jan 1999

16 Feb 2005

TUVALU

16 Nov 1998

16 Nov 1998

16 Feb 2005

UGANDA

25 Mar 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

UKRAINE*

15 Mar 1999

12 Apr 2004

16 Feb 2005

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

26 Jan 2005 a

26 Apr 2005

UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND*

29 Apr 1998

31 May 2002 (6) (7)

16 Feb 2005

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA

26 Aug 2002 a

16 Feb 2005

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA*

12 Nov 1998

URUGUAY

29 Jul 1998

  5 Feb 2001

16 Feb 2005

UZBEKISTAN

20 Nov 1998

12 Oct 1999

16 Feb 2005

VANUATU

17 Jul 2001 a

16 Feb 2005

VENEZUELA

18 Feb 2005 a

19 May 2005

VIET NAM

  3 Dec 1998

25 Sep 2002

16 Feb 2005

YEMEN

15 Sep 2004 a

16 Feb 2005

ZAMBIA

  5 Aug 1998

  7 Jul 2006

  5 Oct 2006

ZIMBABWE

30 Jun 2009 a

28 Sep 2009

...

...

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