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Law and Justice in Uk

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A - Criminal and Law

- Criminal law deals with wrongs affecting the community for which a procession may be brown in a criminal course.

- On the contrary, civil law is about deciding dispute between two or more parties and for providing the means of legal secretary of the actions of public bodies.

- The purpose of civic proceeding is not to punish but to obtain compensation

- The distinction between civil and criminal matters is not precise. Courts may be classified on criminal courts but in England, Wales and Northern Ireland magistrate courts are both a civil and criminal jurisdiction. In Scotland, the name changes and the courts are called sheriff courts.

- However, the court of trial and the rule of procedure and evidences will usually deafer in civil and criminal cases.

- The death penalty is the penalty for death for very serious crimes such as murder. It hasn't been applied in UK since 1965. Today, some people in the UK think that the death penalty is merely wrong while others think it's necessary for crimes like terrorism and act of torture.

- According to the law in the UK, people are considered innocent until prevent guilty. This means that if someone is accused for a crime, they can't be punished until it has been proved beyond reasonable doubt, they are guilty. If someone is found guilty by a court, they can sometimes ask for permission to appeal to a higher court in the hope that it will change the decision.

B - Criminal law in England and Wales

When someone is arrested, the CPS of Crime prosecution service decides whether that is enough for the case to go to court. If there is enough evidence and if the case is serious, the accused is sent to a crime court for a trial with a judge and jury of 12 people. If the verdict of the jury is that the accused is guilty, the judge decides the sentence. Another possibility is that the crime is less serious, but there is serious evidence then, the case is heart in a magisterial court.

The head of the judiciary is called the « Lord chancellor » who sent as a member of the judicial committee of the House of Lords. The Chancellor also presides over the House of Lords. In its legislative capacities and a signer cabinet minister, having a government department. The home secretary has overall responsibility for criminal law, the police service, the prison system and aid. The home secretary advises the crown and the exercises of a royal prerogative of mercy (= droit de grâce).

The altering general and the solitary general are the government's principal leader advices including propose legislation. A witness for a procecussion (= témoin à charge).

C - Criminal law in Northern Ireland and Scotland

In Northern Ireland, someone accused for a crime may also be judge in a magistrate court or a crime court (= tribunal criminel) and in this country, there is also the Northern Ireland courts of appeal.

Scotland has separate its court system: After someone is arrested, an officer called « the procurator fiscal » decides whether there is enough evidence or not.

 If there's enough evidence and if the crime is serious, the accused is sent on a high court of judiciary to be treat by the judge

 If the case is less serious, the case is sheriff court.

D - European sources of



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