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Maximization of Weight Loss Through Varying Intensity of Exercise

Essay by   •  January 25, 2016  •  Research Paper  •  4,277 Words (18 Pages)  •  746 Views

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Introduction

Exercise training provides an economically viable, non-drug solution to changing body composition and health. Pi- Sunveer (1991) and Goldstein (1992) both reported, any small reduction with regards to weight loss can be associated with reductions for risk of disease. Looking into fat loss within physical activity related obesity rates is very important because physical inactivity that comes from obesity is associated with risk of overall mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes and mental health problems such as depression (Fox & Hillsdon, 2007)

Justification of Study

Studies previously conducted found that exercise training can significantly lower body weight, and obesity of participants (Leon et al., 1979). However, other studies of similar nature have reported that there was no change in obesity rates with participants subjected to treatment within the study (Krotkiewski et al., 1983). These studies, like many within the area of exercise training and obesity, looked at vigorous activity vs. non- vigorous activity. However, not many studies have looked at varying specific intensities of peak v02max through Low intensity exercise training (LIET) and High intensity exercise training (HIET) to reduce BMI, waist circumference, skinfold thickness and overall weight. This comes back to the common belief among professionals in the industry that low intensity exercise should be recommended in weight reducing programs (Tremblay et al., 1990). What this belief does not account for is that HIET increases secretion of lypolytic hormones, which will facilitate greater post exercise energy expenditure (Irving et al., 2008; Pritzlaff et al., 2000). If we take into account post exercise effects of energy training and give very specific protocol of LIET and HIET, it is possible significant results could be seen. This study will examine whether or not HIET maximizes weight loss better than LIET training, we will put participants through specific intensities of workouts within randomly assigned groups.

Literature Review

Energy Pathways

The theories that will be used for this research proposal are the three energy pathways. There are three energy pathways that are used when it comes to exercise training. The first of the three energy pathways is aerobic, which entails the presence of oxygen. The aerobic pathway is any low to moderate intensity activity that is over two-minutes, allowing the usage of oxygen through the metabolism of nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats and protein to form ATP (William et al., 2010). There are numerous positive effects that follow aerobic based training such as increased cardiovascular function and decrease in body fat (Trombold et al., 2013). Other specific benefits such as an increased heart rate, more efficient lungs, raised metabolism, and increased fat burning leading to a reduced risk of diabetes and disease also occur (Franklin & Billecke, 2012). The second pathway being looked at is the anaerobic pathway, also known as glycolysis. The anaerobic pathway is the opposite in regards to usage of oxygen. Glycolysis is any medium or high intensity activity under approximately two minutes, where the creatine component of ATP comes strictly from carbohydrates and lactic acid, and is produced as a by product (Boulay et al., 1985). The immediate anaerobic pathway consists of ATP and creatine phosphate for the first burst of energy that typically lasts 5-8 seconds (Boulay et al., 1985). Following the initial phase, glycolysis, the second anaerobic pathway will take over and during this stage is where you would see the partial breakdown of glucose without the need of oxygen. ATP production happens much faster within the anaerobic system, however, it is difficult to sustain for long periods of time (William et al., 2010). Lee et al (2012) explains how anaerobic pathways also have positive effects within the body such as increasing cardiovascular functioning, decreasing body fat, improving strength, improving power and increasing anaerobic capacity

Relation Between aerobic and anaerobic system; High Intensity and Low Intensity Training

Working the aerobic system has its own benefits, for example a well-trained aerobic base translates over when performing exercises that recruit the anaerobic system. Training of the aerobic system will prove to be beneficial for your anaerobic system when it comes to sustainability and repetition of high intensity exercise (Murach et al., 2002). Anaerobic athletes rely heavily on a well-developed PCR System for muscle contraction, and PCR resynthesize is an aerobic process augmenting the benefits from aerobic training (Harris et al., 1976; Murach et al., 2002). For example, when doing 10 repeated bouts of sprints (anaerobic power), with a better aerobic base the time spent in between sets to replenish and resynthesize ATP will be considerably less. Low intensity cardio, also known as work within your comfort zone, targets mainly the aerobic system (Belardinelli et al, 1995). An example of a low intensity workout is a 5-mile jog at 30-40 % of your V02 max, which remains below your lactate threshold. Low intensity workouts are more commonly seen with patients recovering from serious surgeries, or people suffering from diseases where it would be unsafe to conduct anything but low intensity exercise (Belardinelli et al, 1995). High intensity exercise on the hand is exercise such as cross fit training or guerilla cardio, which makes you work at 70-95 % of your peak V02max for shorter periods than low intensity exercise, such as 20-30 minutes (Buchheit & Laursen, 2013). The interesting fact behind aerobic and anaerobic training is that, HIET increases both aerobic and anaerobic capacity greater than LIET (Gaesser & Rich, 1984). High intensity exercise has also been shown to reduce more fat than low intensity exercise, Helgerud et al (2007) and Iriving et al (2008) analyzed high intensity exercise among untrained, mid aged, females and found high intensity exercise is more beneficial to fat loss that lower intensity exercises and also reduced more fat.

Crossfit

Traditionally when conducting high intensity exercise, rest periods were twice to three times as long as the work intervals. A reason for this was to bring your lactate levels and heart rate back down to normal before you begin again (Tremblay et al., 1990). However, through the invention of cross fit training programs, high intensity exercise training has evolved into extremely intense bouts of work followed by short durations of rest (Halprin & Danyael, 2011). An example of a cross fit training day of exercise is as follows, 25 pull up, 25 push ups, 4-100 meter sprints, and

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